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易网体育比分直播:#99: The North Loses the First Major Battle of the War

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

The battle between the North and the South spread in the summer of eighteen sixty-one. Union soldiers fought pro-southern rioters in the streets of Baltimore and Saint Louis. A Confederate supporter shot and killed a young officer from the North. Untrained soldiers from both sides fought in the mountains of western Virginia.

1861年夏天,南北戰爭的戰火繼續蔓延。聯邦士兵跟同情南方的暴動份子在巴爾的摩和圣路易斯街頭發生沖突,一名南方支持者開槍打死了一名年輕的北方軍官。雙方未經訓練的士兵還在西維吉尼亞山區交火。

So far, though, the fighting had not claimed many lives. But very soon, the battle would become fierce.

戰爭初期雙方傷亡都不多,但沒過多久,戰爭就進入了白熱化。

This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Jack Weitzel continue the story of the American Civil War.

General Winfield Scott
General Winfield Scott

VOICE ONE:

The old general who commanded the Union forces, Winfield Scott, did not want to rush his men into battle.

聯邦部隊總指揮斯科特老將軍不想操之過急。

Scott believed it would be a long war. He planned to spend the first year of it getting ready to fight. He had an army of thousands of men, and it would get much larger in coming months. But this army was not trained. His soldiers were civilians who knew nothing about fighting a war. General Scott needed time to make soldiers of these men.

斯科特相信,這將是一場持久戰,他想用第一年為戰斗做準備。他手下起初只有幾千人,但在接下來的幾個月里會大大增加。不過,這支部隊沒有受過訓練,戰士都是平民,對打仗一無所知。斯科特將軍需要時間把他們變成真正的士兵。

He also needed time to organize a supply system to get to his forces the guns, bullets, food, and clothing they would need. Without supplies, his army could not fight very long.

他還需要時間建立補給系統,為部隊輸送必要的槍支、彈藥、食品和衣物。如果沒有補給,他的部隊就支撐不了多久。

VOICE TWO:

There were many in the North, however, who thought Scott was too careful. It was true, they said, that Union forces were untrained. But so were those of the South. And the Confederacy's supply problems were even greater than those of the Union. The South had much less industry and fewer railroads. It could not produce as much military equipment, and it could not transport supplies as easily as the North could.

然而,北方很多人覺得斯科特將軍過于謹慎。他們承認,北方部隊確實沒有受過訓練,但是南方部隊也是一樣,而且南方邦聯的供給困難比北方更大。南方的工業和鐵路比北方少得多,不能像北方一樣,生產這么多軍需裝備,供給運輸也不如北方便利。

In the early months of the war, Jefferson Davis, the Confederate president, did not even have guns enough for the men in his army.

戰爭打響后的頭幾個月,南方邦聯總統戴維斯甚至沒有足夠的槍支來武裝自己的部隊。

Those who demanded immediate action expected a short war. They said Scott should take the army and march to Richmond. They were sure that if Union forces seized the Confederate capital, the southern rebellion would end.

要求斯科特迅速行動的人覺得,這場戰爭一定會速戰速決。他們覺得斯科特應該率軍南下,直搗里士滿。他們堅信,南方邦聯首府一旦被聯邦部隊占領,暴亂就算是平定了。

Northern newspapers took up the cry, "On to Richmond!" Political leaders began pressing for a quick northern victory. Public pressure forced the army to act.

北方報紙提出“進軍里士滿”的口號,政治領袖也施加壓力,要求速戰速決,公眾壓力迫使部隊采取行動。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

General Irvin McDowell
General Irvin McDowell

For more than a month, General Irvin McDowell had been building a Union army in northern Virginia, just across the Potomac River from Washington. He had more than thirty thousand men at bases in Arlington and Alexandria. Late in June, McDowell received orders: "March against the Confederate Army of General Pierre Beauregard."

一個多月來,歐文·麥克道威將軍一直在維吉尼亞北部組建一支聯邦部隊,隔著一條波托馬克河,對岸就是華盛頓。他在阿靈頓和亞歷山德里亞市的軍事基地一共有三萬多人。麥克道威6月下旬接到命令,“向南方邦聯博雷加德將軍的部隊進發。”

Beauregard had twenty thousand soldiers at Manassas Junction, a railroad village in Virginia less than fifty kilometers from Washington. McDowell planned to move on Manassas Junction July ninth, but was delayed for more than a week.

南方邦聯博雷加德將軍率領的兩萬人部隊駐扎在一個叫馬納薩斯匯合點的鐵路線上的村落,距離首都華盛頓不到50公里。麥克道威將軍本打算7月9號進攻,但是耽誤了一個多星期。

He planned the attack carefully. McDowell was worried that another large Confederate force west of Manassas Junction might join Beauregard's army.

麥克道威策劃這次攻擊十分謹慎,他擔心馬納薩斯匯合點以西的另外一大批南方邦聯人馬會跟博雷加德的部隊匯合。

This force, led by General Joe Johnston, was in the Shenandoah Valley near Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Across from Harpers Ferry, in Maryland, was a Union army almost twice the size of Johnston's. It was ordered to put pressure on Johnston's force to prevent it from helping Beauregard.

這股部隊由喬·約翰遜將軍率領,駐扎在哈珀斯費里鎮附近的雪蘭多山谷。哈珀斯費里對面的馬里蘭州駐扎著一支聯邦部隊,人力幾乎兩倍于約翰遜的部下。這支部隊得到命令,對約翰遜施加壓力,防止他們出兵幫助博雷加德將軍。

VOICE TWO:

Rose O'Neal Greenhow and her daughter Rose
Rose O'Neal Greenhow and her daughter Rose

General Beauregard received early warning from Confederate spies that McDowell would attack. Much of his information came from a woman, Missus Rose O'Neal Greenhow. Missus Greenhow, a widow, was an important woman in Washington. She knew almost all the top government officials. And she had friends in almost every department of the government.

與此同時,博雷加德將軍也從邦聯間諜那里得到了麥克道威準備進攻的消息。消息來源是一個叫羅斯·奧尼爾·格林豪的女人。格林豪是個寡婦,在華盛頓是一位重要人物,所有政府高層官員她幾乎都認識,在所有政府部門都有朋友。

The beautiful Missus Greenhow also had some very special friends. One was Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. He was chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs. Another special friend was Thomas Jordan, a Confederate colonel in Beauregard's army.

美貌動人的羅斯·格林豪還有一些很特殊的朋友,其中一個是麻薩諸塞州參議員、參議院軍事事務委員會主席亨利·威爾遜;另外一個是博雷加德手下的邦聯上校托馬斯·喬丹。

VOICE ONE:

Jordan asked Missus Greenhow, soon after the war started, to be a spy for the South. She agreed and sent much valuable information about Union military plans.

戰爭打響后不久,喬丹讓格林豪給南方當間諜。格林豪同意了,先后向南方傳遞了很多有關北方軍事動向的寶貴情報。

Early in July, she sent word to Beauregard that he would be attacked soon. She also sent a map used by the Senate Military Affairs Committee showing how the Union army would reach Manassas Junction.

格林豪7月初傳遞消息給博雷加德將軍,警告他不久將遭到襲擊。她同時把參議院軍事事務委員會使用的地圖也交給了博雷加德,上面標注了聯邦部隊襲擊馬納薩斯匯合處的路線。

Then, on the morning of July sixteenth, Missus Greenhow wrote a nine-word message. She gave it to a man to carry to Beauregard. The Confederate general received it that evening. It said: "Order given for McDowell to march upon Manassas tonight."

7月16號早上,格林豪讓人快馬加鞭把一封情報送給博雷加德,上面只有9個字,意思是“麥克道威已經得到命令,今晚進軍馬納薩斯。”博雷加德晚上收到了情報。

VOICE TWO:

Beauregard sent a telegram to Richmond. He told the Confederate government that McDowell was on the way. He asked that Johnston's ten thousand-man force in the Shenandoah Valley join him for battle. He was told to expect Johnston's help.

博雷加德馬上給里士滿的邦聯政府發電報,說麥克道威的部隊已經出發,要求喬·約翰遜駐扎在雪蘭多山谷的1萬兵力增援,得到的回答是,約翰遜的援兵馬上就到。

But Johnston's army was threatened by a large Union force that entered Virginia from Maryland. Led by General Robert Patterson, the Union troops moved toward the smaller Confederate force. They were not really interested in fighting Johnston. But they did want to prevent him from reaching Beauregard.

然而,喬·約翰遜的部隊遭到了從北面馬里蘭州進入維吉尼亞的大批聯邦部隊的鉗制。這批部隊由羅伯特·帕特森將軍率領,向約翰遜手下的邦聯部隊進逼。他們并不真想跟約翰遜交火,只是希望阻止約翰遜率部增援博雷加德。

Johnston knew he could not defeat Patterson. So he decided to trick him. While most of his army withdrew and prepared to join Beauregard, Johnston sent a small force to attack Patterson's army. Patterson believed Johnston was attacking with all his troops. He stopped moving forward and prepared to defend against what seemed to be a strong Confederate attack.

約翰遜知道打不過帕特森,所以耍了個花招。他讓大部分兵力前去支援博雷加德,同時派一小股人馬襲擊帕特森的部隊。帕特森以為約翰遜的全部兵力都在這里,所以安營扎寨,準備迎接邦聯部隊的襲擊。

By the time the trick was discovered, Johnston and most of his troops were at Manassas.

真相大白時,約翰遜已經率領自己的大股部隊抵達馬納薩斯了。

VOICE ONE:

General McDowell's huge Union army left Arlington on the afternoon of July sixteenth. It was a hot day, and the road was dusty. The march was not well organized, and the men traveled slowly. They stopped at every stream to drink and wash the dust from their faces. Some of the soldiers left the road to pick fruits and berries from bushes along the way.

聯邦部隊指揮官麥克道威7月16號下午率兵從阿靈頓出發,天氣炎熱,路上塵土飛揚,部隊缺乏秩序,行軍速度緩慢,沿途每逢遇到小溪,大家就停下來洗臉,還有人擅自離開部隊,采摘路邊的水果。

To some of those who watched this army pass, the lines of soldiers in bright clothes looked like a long circus parade.

在局外人看來,這群穿著紅紅綠綠的士兵,看上去就像巡游途中的馬戲團。

Most of these men had not been soldiers long. Their bodies were soft, and they tired quickly. It took them four days to travel the forty-five kilometers to Centreville, the final town before Bull Run. The battle would start the next morning -- Sunday, July twenty-first.

這些士兵大多數人都是入伍不久,身體素質差,動不動就疲憊不堪。他們整整花了4天的時間,才走完45公里的路程,到了布爾溪之前的最后一個小鎮圣特威爾。次日,7月21號星期天的早上,戰斗打響了。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The road from Washington was crowded early Sunday morning with horses and wagons bringing people to watch the great battle.

從華盛頓通往布爾溪的路星期天早上十分擁擠,很多人騎著馬或是趕著馬車來觀看戰斗。

Hundreds of men and women watched the fight from a hill near Centreville. Below them was Bull Run. But the battleground was covered so thickly with trees that the crowds saw little of the fighting. They could, however, see the smoke of battle. And they could hear the sounds of shots and exploding shells.

數百人在圣特威爾附近的一座小山上觀戰。他們腳下就是布爾溪。然而,戰場上到處都是樹,幾乎看不到戰斗場景,但是可以看到戰場上的炮火,聽到子彈和炮彈的聲音。

From time to time, Union officers would ride up the hill to report what a great victory their troops were winning.

聯邦指揮官也會時不時上山來報告他們的戰果。

VOICE ONE:

A newspaper drawing of the battle
A newspaper drawing of the battle

In the first few hours of the battle, Union forces were winning. McDowell had moved most of his men to the left side of Beauregard's army. They attacked with artillery and pushed the Confederate forces back. It seemed that the Confederate defense would break. Some of the southern soldiers began to run. But others stood and fought.

戰斗打響后的頭幾個小時,北方部隊一直占優勢。麥克道威率領大部分人從左翼包抄博雷加德的部隊,依靠炮火支持,迫使南方邦聯部隊后撤,南方邦聯防線似乎馬上就要一瀉千里,一些南方士兵開始各自逃命,但是也有人堅守陣地。

One Confederate officer, trying to prevent his troops from moving back, pointed to a group led by General T. J. Jackson of Virginia. "Look!" He shouted. "There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall! Fight like the Virginians!"

南方邦聯的一個指揮官為了防止部下后撤,指著一群由杰克遜將軍率領的部隊大聲喊道,“看!杰克遜將軍站在那里,象一堵石墻,像維吉尼亞人一樣奮力作戰。”

The Confederate troops refused to break.

邦聯部隊拒絕撤退。

The fighting was fierce. The air was full of flying bullets. A newsman wrote that the whole valley was boiling with dust and smoke. A Confederate soldier told his friend, "Them Yankees are just marching up and being shot to hell."

雙方戰斗越來越激烈,子彈象雨點般穿梭。當時有記者描述說,“整個山谷里烏煙瘴氣。”南方邦聯的一個戰士告訴自己的朋友說,“那些北方佬向前推進,我們就用子彈送他們進地獄。”

Neither side would give up. Then, a large group of Johnston's troops arrived by train and joined in the fight. Suddenly, Union soldiers stopped fighting and began pulling back. General McDowell and his officers tried to stop the retreat, but failed. Their men wanted no more fighting.

就在交戰雙方僵持不下之際,約翰遜率領大批援兵乘火車抵達,加入戰斗。突然間,聯邦士兵停止抵抗,開始后撤。麥克道威將軍和他手下的指揮官試圖阻止部隊的退卻,但是沒有成功。他們的部下不想再打了。

VOICE TWO:

The fleeing Union soldiers threw down their guns and equipment, thinking only of escape. Many did not stop until they reached Washington.

潰敗的北方士兵扔掉槍支和裝備,一心只想逃命,有些人一口氣跑回華盛頓。

It was a bitter defeat. But it made the North recognize the need for a real army -- one trained and equipped for war. President Abraham Lincoln gave the job of building such an army to General George McClellan.

北方打了個慘痛的大敗仗。不過,這也讓他們意識到,北方需要一支真正的部隊,一支訓練有素、裝備精良的部隊。美國總統林肯把這項任務交給了喬治·麥克萊倫將軍。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Jack Weitzel. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #99 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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