官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

下载载球探体育比分:#74: Polk Decides Not to Seek Second Term in 1848

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。┑慊饗旅嫻腗P3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音(英文版) MP3節目錄音(英文版)  MP3節目錄音(中文版) MP3節目錄音(中文版)  PDF節目文稿 PDF節目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

James Polk
James Polk

In eighteen forty-eight, while James Polk was president, there was a great constitutional debate in the United States. It arose over slavery in the new territories. Southerners argued that they had the right to take slaves into New Mexico and California. Northerners opposed any further spread of slavery. The question was this: did Congress have the power to control or even ban slavery in the new territories?

1848年,美國總統詹姆斯·波爾克在任期間,美國出現了一場憲法大辯論,辯論焦點是新增土地上的蓄奴問題。南方人認為,他們有權把奴隸帶到新墨西哥和加利福尼亞去,但是北方人反對奴隸制度的進一步推廣。問題的關鍵是,國會是否有權決定新增土地上的蓄奴問題。

There seemed to be no answer to the problem. Everyone agreed that governments had to be organized in the territories. But northern and southern leaders could not settle their dispute over slavery.

雖然大家一致認為,新增土地上一定要組建地方政府,但是南、北雙方領導人在奴隸制度的分歧上始終無法達成共識。

Now, with this week's program in our series, here are Jack Moyles and Jack Weitzel.

VOICE ONE:

Senator John Clayton of Delaware proposed to the Senate that it name a special committee on the question of slavery in the new territories. Both parties -- the Whigs and the Democrats -- had the same number of senators on the committee. Senator Clayton was its chairman.

德拉瓦州的國會參議員約翰·克萊頓建議參議院任命一個特別委員會,討論新增土地上的蓄奴問題。委員會里輝格黨和民主黨、南方人和北方人的力量持平,委員會主席由克萊頓擔任。

South and North were equally represented. After six days, Clayton's committee agreed on a compromise bill. It proposed that Oregon be organized as free territory. Slavery there would be illegal.

短短六天后,克萊頓領導的委員會就達成了妥協議案,建議將俄勒岡歸化為自由領地,禁止奴隸存在。

And on California and New Mexico, the bill proposed this: they could be organized as territories. But their territorial legislatures would not have the power to act on the issue of slavery. All questions on slavery in these two territories must be decided by the United States Supreme Court.

議案同時提出,將加利福尼亞和新墨西哥歸化為領地,地方立法無權觸及蓄奴問題,蓄奴問題一律提交美國最高法院裁決。

VOICE TWO:

Chief Justice Roger Taney
Chief Justice Roger Taney

Not everyone believed this plan was a good one. Some northern senators believed that Chief Justice Taney would decide for slavery. Southern senators were just as sure that Taney would decide against slavery.

并非所有人都覺得這項計劃是個好主意。北方的一些參議員相信,最高法院首席大法官托尼肯定會支持蓄奴;南方的一些參議員則恰恰相反,覺得托尼勢必會反對蓄奴。

Many Whigs in the House of Representatives opposed the plan, because they feared that the political dispute over slavery would destroy the Supreme Court. The Senate approved the compromise bill. But the House rejected it.

國會眾議院里的很多輝格黨人都反對克萊頓委員會提出的計劃,擔心蓄奴問題引起的政治糾紛會毀掉最高法院。結果,國會參議院批準了妥協議案,但是議案在眾議院遭到了否決。

After long debate, Congress finally approved territorial government for Oregon. And it voted that Oregon should be free territory, with slavery illegal.

經過長時間的辯論,國會終于批準在俄勒岡建立地方政府,并認定俄勒岡為自由土地,禁止蓄奴。

The vote on the Oregon bill was very close. It passed in the Senate only because two men from slave states voted for it. They were Senator Thomas Benton of Missouri and Senator Sam Houston of Texas.

這一法案的表決結果十分接近,議案最終得以通過,完全是因為蓄奴州的兩位參議員投了贊成票。他們是密蘇里州的托馬斯·本頓和德克薩斯州的薩姆·休斯頓。

Senator John C. Calhoun said it was a bad defeat for the South. But what was worse was the fact that it was caused by the votes of two southern senators. Soon after, at the end of August, Congress ended its session. And the nation's leaders prepared for the national election of eighteen forty-eight.

約翰·卡爾霍恩參議員說,這是南方遭受的一次重大失敗,更糟糕的是,失敗是由兩位南方參議員一手造成的。沒過多久,國會八月底進入休會期,大家開始著手為1848年大選做準備。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The country moved quickly into the presidential campaign. President Polk was old, tired and in poor health. He had decided not to try for a second term. Polk felt he had done his duty. During the first days of his administration, he listed the things he planned to do as president.

美國迅速進入大選狀態。波爾克總統年邁體衰,決定不參加競選連任。波爾克覺得,他已經盡到了自己應盡的職責。上任之初,他曾羅列出他在任期內想要實現的一系列目標。

First, he wanted to reduce the tax on imports. Second, he wished to establish the independent treasury, which the Whigs had voted out. Third, he hoped to settle the Oregon border dispute with Britain. And fourth, he wanted to get California for the United States.

第一,他要降低進口關稅;第二,他要建立獨立財政;第三,他希望解決跟英國有關俄勒岡的邊境爭端;第四,他希望得到加利福尼亞。

Less than four years later, he had succeeded with each item on his list. The United States and Britain agreed on a compromise in the Oregon dispute. In eighteen forty-six, he was able to establish the independent Treasury again, where the government could keep its own funds. No longer would government funds be kept in private banks.

四年不到,他就實現了所有目標。英、美兩國在俄勒岡的領土爭端上達成了妥協。1846年,波爾克成功建立了獨立財政,讓政府有了自己的資金,不再把錢放在私人銀行里。

That same year, Polk was able to get Congress to approve a bill that greatly reduced the taxes on imports. And the peace treaty with Mexico gave the United States not only California, but also New Mexico. So, Polk believed he had served his country well.

同一年,波爾克說服國會批準法案,大幅度降低進口關稅。此外,跟墨西哥達成的和平協議不僅讓美國得到了加利福尼亞,而且還得到了新墨西哥。波爾克覺得,自己為國家做了很多貢獻。

VOICE TWO:

Polk, however, had not served his party well. He was not a good politician. He failed to unite the disputing groups of the Democratic Party. What was worse, he let them move even farther apart.

然而,波爾克并沒有為自己所在的政黨做出巨大的貢獻。他不是一個出色的政客,沒能團結民主黨內意見分歧的派別。更糟糕的是,這些派別之間的距離還在不斷拉大。

There seemed to be no strong Democratic candidate who could unite the party. At one extreme were the supporters of former President Van Buren -- New York Democrats opposed to slavery. They were called "Barnburners." They got this name from their political opponents, who charged that they were willing to burn down the barn to get rid of pro-slavery rats.

民主黨的一個極端是前總統范布倫的支持者,也就是紐約那些反對蓄奴的民主黨人,他們被稱為“燒谷倉者”。這是反對者給他們起的外號,因為反對者指責他們為了鏟除支持蓄奴的“老鼠”,不惜放火燒掉谷倉。

At the party's other extreme were the Democrats of the South, led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. In every state, the Democrats were divided between those who supported the administration and those opposed to it.

民主黨的另一個極端是以南卡羅來納州卡爾霍恩為首的南方民主黨人。美國各州的民主黨人都分成兩派,一派支持現政府,一派反對現政府。

VOICE ONE:

The Democrats met in Baltimore in May eighteen forty-eight to choose their presidential candidate. Several men were proposed as possibilities: Polk's Treasury Secretary Robert Walker of Mississippi; John Dix of New York; and Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan.

1848年5月,民主黨人在馬里蘭州的巴爾的摩開會推舉總統候選人。人選包括:波爾克政府的財政部長,密西西比的羅伯特·沃克;紐約的約翰·迪克斯,和密西根的參議員劉易斯·卡斯。

On the fourth vote, the convention chose Cass as the party's presidential candidate. Cass was sixty-six years old. He was a middle-of-the-road Democrat. He was a northerner who did not oppose slavery.

經過四輪投票,代表大會最后推舉卡斯為民主黨總統候選人??ㄋ?6歲,是民主黨中間派,他雖然是北方人,但是并不反對蓄奴。

On the question of slavery in the new territories, Cass believed that the people of the territory should make the decision. The Barnburner Democrats of New York refused to accept Cass as their candidate. They walked out of the Baltimore convention.

在新領土的蓄奴問題上,卡斯認為,應該由當地居民決定。紐約的“燒谷倉者”民主黨人拒絕接受卡斯為他們的總統候選人,退出大會以示抗議。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

General Zachary Taylor
General Zachary Taylor

Senator Henry Clay -- three times the Whig Party choice for president -- expected to be its candidate again. The old members of the party still supported Clay. But young Whigs felt that a new candidate was needed.

與此同時,輝格黨前三次的總統候選人亨利·克萊參議員再次成為輝格黨看好的候選人?;愿竦澈芏嗬系吃奔絳С摯死?,但是年輕人卻覺得,輝格黨需要一個新人。

Some Whig leaders remembered how William Henry Harrison had won the presidency for the party by campaigning as a military hero. The country had a new military hero now. "Old Zach" -- General Zachary Taylor. General Taylor and his men never lost a battle in the Mexican War. Several times, he defeated Mexican forces much larger than his.

輝格黨的一些領袖還記得,當年威廉·亨利·哈里森當選,是因為他是戰斗英雄。如今,輝格黨又出現了一名新的戰斗英雄,他就是人稱“老扎克”的扎卡里·泰勒將軍。泰勒將軍和他的部下在墨西哥戰爭中沒打過一次敗仗,并曾多次以少勝多,擊敗墨西哥部隊。

After the general's first victory, New York political leader Thurlow Weed happened to meet Taylor's brother on a Hudson River steamboat. That meeting had a most important effect on future events.

泰勒將軍首戰告捷后,紐約政治領袖瑟洛·威德跟泰勒的弟弟約瑟夫在哈得遜河一艘汽船上不期而遇,這次會面對后來的事態發展起到了重要影響。

VOICE ONE:

Weed asked Joseph Taylor if his brother was a political man. Joseph answered that "Old Zach" was not. He said his brother belonged to no party, that often he did not even vote. He said Zach supported Henry Clay and did not like Andrew Jackson.

威德問約瑟夫,他哥哥扎卡里是否熱衷政治。約瑟夫回答說,他對政治不感興趣。約瑟夫還說,扎卡里不屬于任何一個政黨,往往連票都不去投,扎卡里支持亨利·克萊,不喜歡安德魯·杰克遜。

Joseph said his brother felt strongly that American products should be protected against competition from foreign imports. He felt so strongly about it, Joseph said, that he refused to wear any imported clothing. Weed made a quick decision. "Your brother," he said, "will be our next president."

約瑟夫說,扎卡里堅信,美國的產品面對進口產品的競爭,應該受到?;?,為此,扎卡里拒絕穿戴任何進口服裝。威德當場做出果斷決定。他告訴約瑟夫說,你哥哥將成為我們的下一屆總統。

"That is preposterous. My brother knows nothing about government or civil affairs. When I tell you," said Joseph Taylor, "that he is not as fit to be president as I am, you will see how foolish this idea is."

約瑟夫·泰勒回答說,“這簡直太荒謬了。我哥哥對政府和民間事務一無所知,我告訴你,他跟我一樣不適合當總統,你會發現這個主意是多么的愚蠢。”

VOICE TWO:

Weed, however, did not think his proposal was foolish. He began to build support for General Taylor among Whig politicians. When Old Zach first heard of efforts to make him president, he agreed with his brother. The idea was foolish.

威德并不覺得自己的建議是愚蠢的。他開始在輝格黨領袖中為推舉扎卡里·泰勒尋求支持。“老扎克”第一次聽到有人想推舉他當總統時,跟弟弟約瑟夫一樣,也覺得這是個愚蠢的想法。

"I would not accept such high office," he said, "even if it were offered."

“老扎克”說,就是讓我當,我也不會接受如此重任。

This statement he made in June, eighteen forty-six. A month later, he was saying he was not a candidate for president -- and never would be. He said he felt it was wrong to make a military man president. But, a few months later, Taylor changed his mind. He told his son-in-law in December: "I will not say I would not serve if the good people were to be so unwise as to elect me."

他的這番話是1846年6月說的。一個月后,他表示,自己不是總統候選人,永遠不會是。他還說,他覺得讓軍人當總統是錯誤的。但是幾個月后,“老扎克”就改變了主意。他12月的時候告訴自己的女婿說,“如果廣大民眾傻到選我當總統的話,我不會拒絕接受。”

VOICE ONE:

By July of eighteen forty-seven, Old Zach had made up his mind. He told a friend: "I am satisfied that if the election were held now, nothing could prevent me from becoming president." Senator Clay did not think Taylor had the ability to be president. But Clay knew well how the voters loved a military hero. Senator Clay was seventy years old. He knew this would be his last chance to become president. He worked very hard to get the support of Whig leaders.

1847年7月,“老扎克”已經拿定了主意。他告訴自己的朋友說,“讓我滿意的是,如果大選現在舉行的話,沒有什么可以阻止我成為總統。”克萊參議員雖然覺得泰勒不具備擔任總統的能力,但他了解選民對戰爭英雄的愛戴??死騁丫?0高齡,他知道,這是他成為總統的最后一次機會了。他竭盡全力爭取輝格黨領袖的支持。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

The Whig Party held its convention in Philadelphia in June of eighteen forty-eight. Four names were put before the convention: General Zachary Taylor, Henry Clay, General Winfield Scott and Daniel Webster. That will be our story next week.

輝格黨1848年6月在費城召開全國代表大會。大會提名的候選人人選包括:扎卡里·泰勒將軍、亨利·克萊參議員、溫菲爾德·斯科特將軍和麻薩諸塞州參議員丹尼爾·韋伯斯特。

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Moyles and Jack Weitzel. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, are at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #74 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

網友的學習評論(1條):
作者:Alumni
James Polk did his job well at least by regarded himself. during the first days of his administration, he listed the things he planned to do as president. he done them one by one. Now General Zachary Taylor was on the road for the new prisedential election. he was a military leader and at that time people were in favor of the heroes of militery leader who won the battles against enemies for the prisedents of the nation.
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1球盘体育比分
廣播臺
{ganrao} 短线股票交易秘诀 吉林十一选五开奖号 江苏快3app 幸运快3是不是违法的 股票涨跌最简单公式 甘肃快3开奖查询结果 上海时时乐走势图图感觉 理财知识入门 台湾宾果28官网只选钻石国际 快乐12一定牛走势图 浙江20选5走势图超长版 吉林十一选五走势图最新的 吉林11选5前三组遗漏 佳永配资 吉林快3和值预测与推荐 短线股票推荐低价