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新浪体育比分直播:#73: Polk Sends Troops to Border With Mexico

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In the middle of the eighteen forties, the United States offered to buy California from Mexico. The government of Mexico refused to negotiate. American President James Polk felt that the use of force was the only way to make Mexico negotiate. So, in the spring of eighteen forty-six, he ordered American soldiers to the Rio Grande River. The Rio Grande formed part of the border between the United States and Mexico.

十九世紀四十年代中期,美國提出向墨西哥收購加利福尼亞。墨西哥政府拒絕談判。當時的美國總統波爾克覺得,要想讓墨西哥坐到談判桌前來,唯一的辦法就是使用武力。1846年春天,波爾克下令美軍開往美墨邊界的格蘭德河。

This week in our series, Larry West and Maurice Joyce tell about the conflict between the United States and Mexico.

General Zachary Taylor
General Zachary Taylor

VOICE ONE:

General Zachary Taylor commanded the American force. He sent one of his officers across the river to meet with Mexican officials. The Mexicans protested the movement of the American troops to the Rio Grande. They said the area was Mexican territory. The movement of American troops there, they said, was an act of war.

美軍指揮官扎卡里·泰勒將軍派遣部下過河會見墨西哥官員。墨西哥提出抗議,認為當地是墨西哥領土,美軍在當地的活動是戰爭行為。

For almost a month, the Americans and the Mexicans kept their positions. Then, on April twenty-fifth, General Taylor received word that a large Mexican force had crossed the border a few kilometers up the river. A small force of American soldiers went to investigate. They were attacked. All were killed, wounded, or captured. General Taylor quickly sent a message to President Polk in Washington. It said war had begun.

整整一個月的時間里,美國和墨西哥士兵都堅守陣地,相持不下。直到4月25號,泰勒將軍得到報告,說墨西哥大批部隊在上游幾公里處跨過了邊界。美軍小股部隊前去偵察,結果遭到襲擊,全部傷亡或是被俘。泰勒將軍立即向華盛頓的波爾克總統快信通報,戰爭打響了。

VOICE TWO:

The message arrived at the White House on May ninth. A few days later, President Polk asked Congress to recognize that war had started. He asked Congress to give him everything he needed to win the war and bring peace to the area. A few members of Congress did not want to declare war against Mexico. They believed the United States was responsible for the situation along the Rio Grande. They were out-voted. President Polk signed the war bill. Later, Polk wrote:

白宮5月9號收到通報。幾天后,波爾克總統請求國會宣戰。他要求國會答應他的一切請求,設法打贏這場戰爭,給當地帶來和平。一些國會議員不希望向墨西哥宣戰,因為他們覺得格蘭德河沿岸的戰事完全是由美國造成的。但是持這種看法的人畢竟是少數,最后國會還是通過了法案,由總統波爾克簽字生效。波爾克后來曾經寫道:

"We had not gone to war for conquest. But it was clear that in making peace we would, if possible, get California and other parts of Mexico."

“我們不是為了征服而戰。但是很明顯,在爭取和平的同時,如果可能的話,我們會得到加利福尼亞和墨西哥的其他地區。”

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

James Polk
James Polk

Many Americans opposed what they called "Mr. Polk's war." Whig Party members and Abolitionists in the North believed that slave-owners and southerners in Polk's administration had planned the war. They believed the South wanted to win Mexican territory for the purpose of spreading and strengthening slavery.

很多美國人都持反戰立場,稱這場戰爭為“波爾克先生的戰爭”?;愿竦吵稍焙捅狽降姆嚇饕逭呷銜?,這場戰爭是由波爾克政府里的奴隸主和南方人一手策劃的。他們相信,南方想得到墨西哥領土,是為了推廣和加強奴隸制度。

President Polk was troubled by this opposition. But he did not think the war would last long. He thought the United States could quickly force Mexico to sell him the territory he wanted. Polk secretly sent a representative to former Mexican dictator Santa Ana. Santa Ana was living in exile in Cuba. Polk's representative said the United States wanted to buy California and some other Mexican territory. Santa Ana said he would agree to the sale, if the United States would help him return to power.

波爾克對民眾的反戰情緒十分不解。但是他覺得,這場戰爭不會繼續很久。他估計美國很快就會迫使墨西哥把他想要的土地賣給他。波爾克還派遣密使前往古巴,會見流亡的前墨西哥獨裁者圣安納。波爾克的密使說,美國想從墨西哥手中收購加利福尼亞和其他一些土地。圣安納表示同意,條件是要美國幫他重新掌權。

VOICE TWO:

President Polk ordered the United States navy to let Santa Ana return to Mexico. American ships that blocked the port of Vera Cruz permitted the Mexican dictator to land there. Once Santa Ana returned, he failed to honor his promises to Polk. He refused to end the war and sell California. Instead, Santa Ana organized an army to fight the United States.

波爾克總統下令美國海軍,讓圣安納返回墨西哥。封鎖韋拉克魯斯港的美國艦只允許圣安納在那里登陸。然而,返回墨西哥后,圣安納立刻翻臉,不僅沒有恪守停戰和出售加利福尼亞的承諾,反而組建軍隊,跟美國作戰。

American General Zachary Taylor moved against the Mexicans. He crossed the Rio Grande River. He marched toward Monterrey, the major trading and transportation center of northeast Mexico. The battle for Monterrey lasted three days. The Mexicans surrendered.

美軍將領扎卡里·泰勒發動進攻,他率兵跨過格蘭德河,向蒙特里進發。蒙特里是墨西哥東北部的主要貿易和交通樞紐。蒙特里一役持續了三天,最后以墨西哥投降告終。

VOICE ONE:

Then General Taylor got orders to send most of his forces back to the coast. They were to join other American forces for the invasion of Vera Cruz. While this was happening, Santa Ana was moving his army north. In four months, he had built an army of twenty thousand men. When General Taylor learned that Santa Ana was preparing to attack, he left Vera Cruz. He moved his forces into a position to fight Santa Ana.

泰勒將軍奉命率領大部分兵力返回沿海地區,跟其他美軍部隊會師,準備進攻韋拉克魯斯。與此同時,圣安納率軍北上,在短短四個月里,就組建了一支兩萬人的隊伍。泰勒得知圣安納準備進攻,于是率部離開韋拉克魯斯,選好陣地,準備跟圣安納交戰。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Santa Ana sent a representative to meet with General Taylor. The representative said the American force had one hour to surrender. Taylor's answer was short: "Tell Santa Ana to go to hell."

圣安納派特使前去會見泰勒將軍,告訴泰勒,限美軍在一小時內投降。泰勒簡單地回答說,“告訴圣安納,讓他見鬼去吧。”

The battle between the United States and Mexican forces lasted two days. Losses were heavy on both sides. On the second night, Santa Ana's army withdrew from the battlefield. Taylor had won another victory.

美國和墨西哥部隊之間的戰爭持續了兩天,雙方傷亡都很慘重。第二天晚上,圣安納的部隊撤退,泰勒贏得了戰斗的勝利。

A drawing of a battle during the war with Mexico
A drawing of a battle during the war with Mexico

VOICE ONE:

Other American forces were victorious, too. General Winfield Scott had captured the port of Vera Cruz and was ready to attack Mexico City. Commodore Robert Stockton had invaded California and had raised the American flag over the territory.

與此同時,其他美軍部隊也捷報頻傳。溫菲爾德·斯科特將軍占領了韋拉克魯斯港,直逼墨西哥城??頗錮?middot;羅伯特·斯托克頓進攻加利福尼亞,在那里升起了美國國旗。

Stephen Kearny had seized Santa Fe, the capital of New Mexico, without firing a shot. Still, the war was not over. President Polk's "short" war already had lasted for more than a year. Polk decided to send a special diplomatic representative to Mexico. He gave the diplomat the power to negotiate a peace treaty whenever Mexico wanted to stop fighting.

史蒂文·卡尼沒用一槍一彈,就占領了新墨西哥首府圣菲。然而,戰爭尚未結束。波爾克原以為會速戰速決的戰爭,持續了一年多。波爾克決定派特使前往墨西哥,只要墨西哥同意停戰,就可以全權代表美國政府,跟墨西哥談判達成和平協議。

VOICE TWO:

A ceasefire was declared. But attempts to negotiate a peace treaty failed. Santa Ana tried to use the ceasefire to prepare for more fighting. So General Scott ended the ceasefire. His men began their attack on Mexico City. The fighting lasted one week. The government of Mexico surrendered. Santa Ana stepped down as president. Manuel de la Pena y Pena -- president of the supreme court -- became acting president.

交戰雙方宣布?;?,但是沒能達成和平協議。圣安納打算利用停戰的時機重整旗鼓。因此,斯科特將軍放棄?;?,對墨西哥城發動進攻。戰斗持續了整整一個星期。最后墨西哥政府投降,圣安納下臺,由最高法院院長代理總統職務。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

On February second, eighteen forty-eight, the United States and Mexico signed a peace treaty. Mexico agreed to give up California and New Mexico. It would recognize the Rio Grande River as the southern border of Texas. The United States would pay Mexico fifteen million dollars. It also would pay more than three million dollars in damage claims that Mexico owed American citizens.

1848年2月2號,美國和墨西哥簽署和平協議。墨西哥同意放棄加利福尼亞和新墨西哥,承認格蘭德河是德克薩斯南部邊界。美國向墨西哥支付一千五百萬美元,并且替墨西哥向美國公民支付三百多萬美元的賠償費用。

The terms of the treaty were those set by President Polk. Yet he was not satisfied with just California and New Mexico. He wanted even more territory. But he realized he probably would have to fight for it. And he did not think Congress would agree to extend the war. So Polk sent the peace treaty to the Senate. It was approved. The Mexican Congress also approved it. The war was officially over.

協議內容是波爾克總統定的,但是他并不滿足于加利福尼亞和新墨西哥,希望得到更多的領土,但他同時也意識到,這就要打仗,而國會不會同意延長戰爭。波爾克因此決定將和平協議提交參議院,并得到參議院的批準,墨西哥國會也批準了和平協議,戰爭正式宣告結束。

VOICE TWO:

The United States now faced the problem of what to do with the new lands. President Polk wanted to form territorial governments in California and New Mexico. He asked Congress for immediate permission to do that. But the question of slavery delayed quick congressional action. Should the new territories be opened or closed to slavery. Southerners argued that they had the right to take slaves into the new territories. Northerners disagreed. They opposed any further spread of slavery. The real question was this: did Congress have the power to control or bar slavery in the territories.

美國要決定如何處理這些新添的土地。波爾克總統希望在加利福尼亞和新墨西哥建立地方政府,希望立即得到國會批準。但是國會的決定再次因為蓄奴問題而受到了拖延。新領地上應該允許奴隸的存在嗎?美國南方人認為,他們有權把奴隸帶到新領地上去,但是北方人卻反對奴隸的進一步推廣。問題關鍵在于,國會是否有權控制或禁止新領地上的蓄奴問題。

VOICE ONE:

Until Texas became a state, almost all national leaders seemed to accept the idea that Congress did have this power. For fifty years, Congress had passed resolutions and laws controlling slavery in United States territories. Northerners believed Congress received the power from the constitution. Southern slave owners disagreed. They believed the power to control slavery remained with the states.

德克薩斯加入美國之前,幾乎所有美國領導人都認為,國會有權控制領土上奴隸制度的存在與否。五十多年來,國會通過了很多決議和法律,都是為了控制美國土地上的奴隸制度。北方人認為,國會的這一權力是由憲法賦予的,但是南方奴隸主卻不同意這種看法。他們認為,控制奴隸制度的權力應該掌握在州政府手中。

VOICE TWO:

There were some who thought the earlier Missouri Compromise could be used to settle the issue of slavery in California, Oregon, and New Mexico. They proposed that the line of the Missouri Compromise be pushed west, all the way to the Pacific Coast. Territory north of the line would be free of slavery. South of the line, slavery would be permitted.

有人認為,加利福尼亞、俄勒岡和新墨西哥,可以依據早先的密蘇里協定來解決蓄奴問題。他們建議將密蘇里協定的范圍向西推,直到太平洋沿岸,以北地區禁止蓄奴,以南地區允許蓄奴。

Everyone agreed that governments had to be organized in the territories. But there seemed to be no way to settle the issue of slavery. Then a senator from Delaware agreed to be chairman of a special committee on the question of slavery in the new territories. The Senate committee included four Whigs and four Democrats. North and South were equally represented. Within six days, the committee had agreed on a compromise bill. That will be our story next week.

大家一致認為,這些新增領土必需組建地方政府,但是蓄奴問題似乎無法解決。德拉瓦州的一位參議員同意領導一個特別委員會,尋找問題的答案。這個特別委員會包括四個輝格黨人和四個民主黨人,四個南方人,四個北方人,短短六天里,委員會成員就達成了協議。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Maurice Joyce.Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #73 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

網友的學習評論(2條):
作者:Wanigfuney
錄音不完全,中間就到結束了。請負責管理的人重新檢查一下。
作者:Alumni
at John Polk's Presidency, the America and Mexio were at war and Mexio was defeated. as a result, the America got the territories of Califorina and New Mexio from Mexio. the force of the America was more power than the Mixio in the war as i had thought.
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