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体育比分投注:#5: A Clash of Cultures in the New World

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VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples, religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and a lack of compromise.

今天我們要講述一段令人痛心的故事。

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

歐洲定居者來到北美大陸后,跟在那里生活了幾千年的土著居民發生沖突,二者的宗教、信仰和文化差異造成了劇烈的摩擦。

Teton Sioux horse races in South Dakota. Artwork by Karl Bodmer from the 1830s.
Teton Sioux horse races in South Dakota. Artwork by Karl Bodmer from the 1830s.

VOICE TWO:

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were peaceful.

在今天的北美大陸東部沿海,也就是現在美國所在的地方,居住著很多印第安人的部落,他們講不同的語言,有些從事農耕,有些以狩獵為生,有些四處征戰,有些則熱愛和平。

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most Americans...the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name only a few.

這些部落很多延續至今,其中包括塞訥卡人、莫霍克人、西米諾爾人和徹羅基人等等。

VOICE ONE:

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

第一批歐洲移民來到北美大陸之前的很多年,這些印第安人部落就已經建立起了各自的文化和信仰。

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade. Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all across the country.

東海岸的印第安人還擁有高度發達的貿易體系。研究人員發現,北美各地的印第安部落曾從事廣泛的物物交換。

VOICE TWO:

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a successful relationship.

歐洲人和北美東海岸印第安人之間第一次有記載的會面發生在十六世紀。當時,法國和西班牙巴斯克地區的漁民橫穿大西洋,在北美東部沿海地區尋找鯨魚。他們在岸上架設臨時營地,經常跟當地的印第安人交換物品,還雇他們干活,雙方都覺得這種關系挺不錯。

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

歐洲漁民也曾多次試圖在當地建立永久性定居點,但是都因為受不了冬天的寒冷而以失敗告終。

VOICE ONE:

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

1620年,歐洲的第一批永久性定居者來到了新英格蘭地區。他們希望跟印第安人和平共處。他們需要從印第安人那里換取食物。他們同時也清楚地知道,自己勢單力薄,一旦發生沖突,根本不是印第安人的對手。

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land. This difference created problems that would not be solved during the next several hundred years.

然而,很快,問題就不可避免地出現了。雙方對土地的不同看法引起了巨大的分歧,帶來了隨后幾百年都無法解決的問題。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land meant a person had great wealth and political power.

對于歐洲定居者來說,土地的重要性非同小可。在英國等歐洲國家,土地意味著財富,擁有大批土地能給一個人帶來巨大的財富和權力。

Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

來到北美大陸的很多定居者都是歐洲的窮人,屬于少數宗教派別,根本不可能擁有自己的土地。他們來到新大陸后,發現這里的土地好像根本就沒有主人。

Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become wealthy and powerful.

英國的公司需要吸引定居者到新大陸去,于是就用土地作為獎賞。對于很多人來說,這無疑是夢想成真,成了他們改變生活的機會,土地讓他們有機會積累財富和權力。

Calender of 37 months, 1889-92, kept on an animal skin by a Kiowa Indian
Calender of 37 months, 1889-92, kept on an animal skin by a Kiowa Indian

VOICE ONE:

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed, however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

然而,美洲的印第安人卻認為,土地不屬于任何人,是大家共同分享的財富。他們覺得,任何人都可以在一片土地上住下來,種莊稼,以此養家糊口。

The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

印第安人生活在大自然里,了解土地和周圍的環境,并不想改變大自然。他們不用太辛苦就能生活得很好。

They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on. They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again. They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work for them.

不論是農耕還是狩獵,他們每過幾年就會換一個地方,讓土地有機會休耕,讓動物的數量可以繼續增加。印第安人熟悉自然生態規律,讓大自然為自己服務。

VOICE TWO:

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them how to plant crops and survive on the land.

在新英格蘭地區定居的第一批歐洲人數量有限。他們渴望得到土地。由于土地資源豐富,所以印第安人對此并不擔心,雙方尚可和睦相處。印第安人還教會了歐洲移民耕種和生存的技能。

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to own the air, or the clouds.

印第安人沒有想到的是,歐洲定居者要把土地據為己有,對他們來說,這是難以想象的,就好像要占有空氣和云彩一樣不可思議。

As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.

年復一年,踏上北美大陸的歐洲定居者不斷增加,他們占據的土地也越來越多。他們砍伐樹木,搭起圍欄,把外人和猛獸擋在外面,并要求印第安人不要侵犯他們的土地。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in learning about it or changing their beliefs.

歐洲移民和北美印第安人之間的另外一大問題出在宗教上。在新英格蘭定居的歐洲人都是虔誠的基督徒。他們視基督教為唯一的信仰,認為所有人都應該信仰基督。但是他們發現,印第安人對基督教并不感興趣,也不打算改變自己的信仰。

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change anything.

很多歐洲定居者因此覺得,既然印第安人不是基督教徒,那他們就不值得信任。歐洲定居者認為,印第安人沒有宗教信仰,所以是邪惡的人群。

VOICE TWO:

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

歐洲定居者不知道的是,美洲土著居民其實是非常虔誠的,他們相信無形的神靈。他們生活在大自然中,相信宇宙萬物互相依存,所有部落都有向大自然的創造者祈福的儀式,他們在日常生活中總會看到宇宙創造者留下的痕跡。

VOICE ONE:

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.

疾病也給歐洲移民和美洲印第安人帶來了摩擦。歐洲移民把天花等當時歐洲常見的疾病帶到了美洲大陸。

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies' defense systems could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox was only one such disease. There were many others.

這些病毒是美洲土著居民從來都沒聽說過的,他們的免疫系統完全沒有抵御能力,很多部落被傳染后,死得一個不剩。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and other goods.

北美大陸東部沿海各地的歐洲移民和印第安人關系的發展大同小異。他們一開始都能和睦相處,交換各種物資。

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler's land. Perhaps a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good example of this is the violent clash called King Philip's War.

但是隨著時間的推移,?;僭緇岜?,要么是某個歐洲移民要求印第安人不要踏上他的土地,要么是某個歐洲定居者或是某個印第安人被殺害,使恐懼逐漸取代了友誼,其中一方會覺得受到了對方的襲擊,并奮起反擊,歷史上的“菲利普王戰爭”就是一個很好的例子。

VOICE ONE:

Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip. Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.

馬塔卡姆是萬帕諾亞格部落的首領,英國人稱他為“菲利普王”。第一批歐洲定居者完全是靠了萬帕諾亞格部落的幫助,才渡過了第一個嚴冬。萬帕諾亞格部落向歐洲定居者提供食物,還教會他們種植谷物,雙方和睦相處了好幾年。

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding increased. Matacom's brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

但是好景不長,彼此間的恐懼和缺少了解與日俱增。馬塔卡姆的兄弟死于一種歐洲疾病,馬塔卡姆認為這都是歐洲人的錯。他還目睹了定居者給土地帶來的變化,認為他們是在摧毀這片土地。

VOICE TWO:

One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men, women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three thousand Native Americans died in the violence.

雙方間?;歡戲⑸?,一名跟定居者住在一起的印第安基督徒被殺,這成了最后的導火索。歐洲定居者發起反擊,打死三個印第安人。戰爭一觸即發,從1675年開始,持續了將近兩年。這場戰爭極其殘酷,雙方都有許多人被打死。研究人員認為,先后一共有六百多個歐洲定居者被打死,還有多達三千名美洲土著居民在沖突中喪生。

VOICE ONE:

History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the true victims of King Philip's War. The Narraganset were not involved in the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had learned to fear all Indians.

歷史學家說,納拉干西特印第安人才是菲利普王戰爭真正的受害者。他們并沒有卷入戰爭,也沒有支持戰爭的任何一方,然而,歐洲定居者因為出于對印第安人的恐懼,幾乎殺死了所有納拉干西特人。

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with Native Americans in all areas of the new country.

正是這種恐懼、缺乏了解和不愿妥協的對立情緒,塑造了美洲大陸上歐洲定居者跟土著印第安人的關系。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

網友的學習評論(7條):
作者:流櫻豪
fight
作者:華晨
A clash bewteen early white settler and native Americans was a tragedy . lack of understanding , the failure to compromise, different culture and religion lead to the sad story. Today ,we should learn the lessons from the historical tragedy .
作者:Kane
I'm here again~~
作者:Freychan
fight and fight
作者:pge
For many settlers, it was a dream come true. It was a way to improve their lives.
作者:Melody
It is the sad story today . A pathetic tragedy both for the European settlers and the Native Americans . They have the unbearable conflict of the culture , reglgions etc . The fear , lack of understandingand the failure to compromise were the mainsprings to cause the clash between each side . What a catastrophe ! Today , we shall learn how to respect people with different regilion , how to live in peace with people from all over the world , how to understand your partners' culture .
作者:hliu
When one takes something too seriously, he becomes serious, mean, and limited. When one believes the only thing he believed it's the truth, he becomes tyranny.
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