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led体育比分管理软件:#48: War of 1812 Ends, but Fighting Continues

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

Most recently in our series, we have been talking about the War of Eighteen Twelve between the United States and Britain. In the summer of eighteen fourteen, the two countries opened peace talks at Ghent, in Belgium. But Britain was in no hurry to agree on a peace treaty. This week, Maurice Joyce and Stuart Spencer tell us about how the War of Eighteen Twelve ended.

1814年夏天,英美兩國談判代表在比利時的根特舉行和平談判。然而,英方談判代表一味拖延時間。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

British forces were planning several campaigns in the United States later in the year. Successful military campaigns could force the United States to accept the kind of treaty Britain wanted.

英軍還在繼續策劃后半年的戰斗,戰場上的勝利,無疑會成為英國談判的籌碼。

British representatives to the talks demanded that the United States give control of its Northwest Territory to the Indians. They also asked that the United States give part of the state of Maine to Canada, and make other changes in the border.

英方談判代表要求美國將西北部地區讓給印第安人,還要求美國把緬因州的部分地區劃給加拿大,并且重新劃定美加邊境。

VOICE TWO:

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams

United States representatives were led by John Quincy Adams, son of former president John Adams. They made equally tough demands. The United States wanted payment for damages suffered during the war. It also demanded that Britain stop seizing American seamen for the British navy. And the United States wanted all of Canada.

美方首席談判代表是前總統約翰.亞當斯的兒子約翰.昆西.亞當斯。他也提出了強硬的要求:包括要求英國賠償美國的戰爭損失、要求英軍停止強硬扣押和征用美國海員、并將加拿大劃歸美國。

The British representatives said they could not even discuss the question of impressing Americans into the British navy.

英方談判代表說,在英軍征用美國海員的問題上,絲毫沒有談判的余地。

John Quincy Adams had little hope the talks would succeed. The Americans would surrender none of their territory. Old John Adams, the former president, told President James Madison: "I would continue this war forever before surrendering an acre of America."

約翰.昆西.亞當斯對談判不抱任何希望,因為在領土問題上,美國絕對不會讓步。他的父親,美國前總統老亞當斯告訴麥迪遜總統說,“就是永遠打下去,我也不會出讓美國的一寸土地。”

His son, John Quincy, did not believe the British would reduce any of their demands. But another of the Americans at Ghent, House Speaker Henry Clay, felt differently. Clay was right. After Britain received word that its military campaigns had failed at Baltimore and Plattsburgh, its representatives became easier to negotiate with. They dropped the demand that the United States give the Northwest Territory to the Indians.

約翰.昆西.亞當斯不相信英國會降低要求,但是美方的另外一位談判代表、國會眾議院議長亨利.克萊并不這么看。結果證明,克萊是對的。英國代表得知巴爾的摩和普拉茨堡戰役失敗后,立即放緩了口氣,不再要求美國把西北地區讓給印第安人了。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Britain still hoped for military successes in America. The British government asked the Duke of Wellington to lead British forces in Canada. The duke had won important victories in the war against Napoleon. Perhaps he could do the same in America. The duke was offered the power to continue the war or to make peace.

不過,英國依舊希望在美國能打個勝仗。英國政府要求多次打敗拿破侖的韋林頓公爵親自出馬,希望他能在美國再建奇功。英國政府授權韋林頓公爵,可以全權決定是繼續作戰,還是握手言和。

Wellington told the government he would go to America if requested. But he refused to promise any success. He said it was not a new general that Britain needed in America, but naval control of the Great Lakes that separated the United States from Canada.

韋林頓公爵表態說,他可以奉命前往美國,但是他不保證能取得勝利。他表示,英軍需要的不是一位新統帥,而是對美加之間大湖區的控制權。

"The question is," Wellington said, "can we get this naval control? If we cannot, then I will do you no good in America. I think," said Wellington, "that you might as well sign a peace treaty with the United States now. I think you have no right to demand any territory from the United States. The failure of the British military campaigns in America gives you no right to make such demands."

韋林頓公爵說,“問題在于,我們能否贏得水上控制權,如果不能,我去了也無濟于事,我覺得還不如干脆現在就跟美國簽署和平協議。我認為,英國沒有權利要求美國割讓領土,英軍在戰斗中失敗,我們沒有提出這種要求的權利。”

VOICE TWO:

Detail of Amedee Forestier's
Detail of Amedee Forestier's "A Hundred Years Peace. The Signature of the Treaty of Ghent between Great Britain and the United States of America"

The British government accepted this advice from its top military expert. It ordered the British representatives at Ghent to drop the demands for American territory. The Americans then dropped their demands for Canadian territory.

英國政府接受了韋林頓公爵的意見,下令比利時的談判代表放棄對美國的領土要求。美方代表隨即同意放棄對加拿大的領土要求。

The things that led to the war no longer existed. Britain's war with France had caused the British and French to interfere with neutral American trade. And Britain had needed men for its navy. Now, the war with France was over. No longer was there any reason to interfere with the trade of any nation. And no longer was there any need to seize Americans for service in the British navy.

原先引發1812年戰爭的因素都已經消失了。英法戰爭期間,英法雙方都干預美國做為中立國的貿易活動,而且英國也需要為海軍補充兵源。英法戰爭結束后,英國沒有理由再去干涉任何國家的貿易,也不再需要抓美國人去充軍了。

On the day before Christmas, eighteen fourteen, the United States and Britain signed a simple treaty. In it, each side agreed to stop fighting. They agreed to settle all their differences at future negotiations.

1814年圣誕節前夜,美英兩國談判代表簽署了一份非常簡單的和平協議。根據協議,雙方同意停戰,并決定通過后續談判解決剩下的糾紛。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The war had ended. But one more battle was to be fought before news of the peace treaty reached the United States.

然而,停戰的消息傳到美國之前,雙方還有最后一場仗要打。

During the autumn of eighteen fourteen, British soldiers at Jamaica began preparing for an attack against New Orleans, at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Late in November, this force of about seven thousand five hundred men sailed from Jamaica to New Orleans.

1814年秋天,駐扎在牙買加的英軍士兵開始為進攻密西西比河口處的新奧爾良做準備。11月下旬,一支大約七千五百人的隊伍從牙買加出發,坐船駛向新奧爾良。

The British soldiers were commanded by General Sir Edward Pakenham. The general did not take his men directly to the mouth of the Mississippi River. Instead, they sailed across a lake east of the city.

英軍統帥愛德華.帕克南沒有率兵直接趕往密西西比河口,而是坐船穿過了新奧爾良以東的一個湖。

Early during the afternoon of December twenty-third, General Andrew Jackson, the commander of American forces at New Orleans, learned the British force was near.

12月23號下午,新奧爾良的美軍指揮官安德魯.杰克遜接到消息,英軍部隊正在逼近。

VOICE TWO:

General Jackson was a good soldier and a great leader of men. He fought in the Revolutionary War, then studied law. He moved west to Nashville, Tennessee. The general also served in both houses of the United States Congress.

杰克遜將軍英勇善戰,運籌帷幄,他參加過美國獨立戰爭,后來搬到田納西州的納什維爾。杰克遜還曾擔任為國會參眾兩院議員。

When war broke out in eighteen twelve, he was elected general of a group of volunteer soldiers from Tennessee. Jackson was a rough man. His soldiers feared and respected him. They called him "Old Hickory," because he seemed as tough as hickory wood.

1812年戰爭爆發后,田納西州的志愿部隊推舉他擔任統帥。杰克遜是條硬漢,部下對他既害怕,又敬重。他們稱他為“老山核桃”,因為他跟核桃木一樣硬。

Jackson was given responsibility for defending the Gulf coast. Earlier in the year, he had attacked Pensacola, in east Florida, and forced out several hundred British marines. Jackson believed the British would attack Mobile before attacking New Orleans. He left part of his forces at Mobile and took the others to the mouth of the Mississippi.

杰克遜負責保衛墨西哥灣。1814年早些時候,他曾經對佛羅里達州東部的彭薩科拉發動進攻,趕跑了幾百名英軍海軍。杰克遜原以為,英國人會先攻打莫比爾,再攻打新奧爾良,所以把一部分兵力留在莫比爾,其余人駐守在密西西比河口。

VOICE ONE:

Engraving of Andrew Jackson commanding American troops in the Battle of New Orleans
Engraving of Andrew Jackson commanding American troops in the Battle of New Orleans

Jackson was a sick man when he got to New Orleans. And what he found made him feel no better. Little had been done to prepare for the expected British attack. Jackson declared martial law and began building the city's defenses.

抵達新奧爾良的時候,杰克遜正在生病,所見所聞更讓他火冒三丈,因為英國人大軍逼近,但是新奧爾良卻絲毫沒有準備。杰克遜立即宣布戒嚴,爭分奪秒地構筑新奧爾良的防御工事。

Most of the work on the defenses had been completed when Jackson got word that the British were only a few kilometers from New Orleans. "Gentlemen," Jackson told his officers, "the British are below. We must fight them tonight."

杰克遜得到消息說,英軍部隊距離新奧爾良只有幾公里的時候,新奧爾良的防御安排已經大致完成。杰克遜告訴手下的指揮官說,“先生們,英國人來了,我們今天晚上就要行動。”

The British soldiers rested. They believed it would be easy to capture the city the next day. But Jackson rushed up guns and men, and attacked the British by surprise just after dark. Then, the Americans retreated to a place about eight kilometers south of the city.

英軍士兵本來已經安營扎寨,準備第二天發起進攻,結果被杰克遜率領的部隊打了個措手不及。美軍隨后撤退到新奧爾良以南大約八公里的地方。

VOICE TWO:

Jackson had chosen this place carefully. On the right was the Mississippi River. On the left was a swamp -- mud and water that could not be crossed. In front of the American soldiers was an open field.

這是杰克遜精心挑選的地方,右邊是密西西比河,左邊是一片沼澤地,面前是開闊的平原。

For two weeks, the British soldiers waited. They tested the American defenses at several places, but found no weaknesses. Every day, Jackson had his men improve their positions. At night, small groups of Jackson's soldiers would slip across the field and silently attack British soldiers guarding the other side.

整整兩個星期的時間里,英軍一直按兵不動。他們不斷試探美軍的防御,沒有發現任何薄弱環節。杰克遜白天帶人加固防御,晚上派小股部隊突襲英軍。

Finally, on January eighth, the British attacked. They expected the Americans to flee in the face of their strong attack. But the Americans stood firm.

1月8號,英軍大舉進攻。他們本以為美軍會掉頭逃竄,但是沒想到,美軍堅守陣地。

Jackson's artillery fired into the enemy. When the British got as close as one hundred fifty meters, the Americans began to fire their long rifles. The rain of bullets and shells was deadly. General Pakenham was wounded twice and then killed by a shell that exploded near him. Only one British soldier reached the top of the American defenses.

杰克遜先是炮轟英軍,等他們前進到大約150米遠的地方時,才下令開槍。炮彈和子彈象雨點般飛來,英軍統帥帕克南兩次受傷,最后被一枚炸彈炸死。最后,只有一名英軍士兵沖破了美軍的防線。

VOICE ONE:

The British finally retreated. They left behind more than two thousand dead and wounded. Five hundred other British soldiers had been captured. Thirteen Americans were killed. It was a great victory for the United States, but one that was not necessary. The war had ended, by treaty, two weeks earlier.

英軍最終決定撤退。在這場戰役中,英軍有兩千多人傷亡,還有五百人被俘,美軍只有13個人被打死。對美國來說,這是一個大勝仗,但同時也是一次沒有必要的沖突,因為早在兩個星期前,英美雙方已經簽署和約,宣布戰爭結束了。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Stuart Spencer. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

網友的學習評論(2條):
作者:Charles
History develops so splendid in this article, i love it, and one can learn more about many parts of the US through this program, such as the geography,and persons of the United States, Great.. Keep learning it.. find more surprise
作者:Alumni
---The United States declared its independence from Britain on July fourth, seventeen seventy-six. ----Next, the Continental Congress had to decide when the states would choose a president. It agreed on March fourth, seventeen eighty-nine. Is it the National Day of the United States?--- and the second war between Britain and the America ended in 1812. the America did experience chaos.
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