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球探体育比分下载:#215: The 1960s, a Decade That Changed a Nation

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Hippies gather in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park in June 1967 to celebrate the start of summer. Here they keep a large ball, painted to represent a world globe, in the air.
Hippies gather in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park in June 1967 to celebrate the start of summer. Here they keep a large ball, painted to represent a world globe, in the air.

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

Today, we tell about life in the United States during the nineteen sixties.

(MUSIC)

The nineteen sixties began with the election of the first president born in the twentieth century -- John Kennedy. For many Americans, the young president represented a spirit of hope for the nation. When Kennedy was murdered in nineteen sixty-three, many felt that their hopes died, too. This was especially true of young people, and members and supporters of minority groups.

A time of innocence and hope soon began to look like a time of anger and violence. More Americans protested to demand an end to the unfair treatment of black citizens. Many more protested to demand an end to the war in Vietnam. And many protested to demand full equality for women.

By the middle of the nineteen sixties, it had become almost impossible for President Lyndon Johnson to leave the White House without facing protesters against the war in Vietnam.

In March of nineteen sixty-eight, Johnson announced that he would not seek another term in office.

In addition to President Kennedy, two other influential Americans were murdered during the nineteen sixties. Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Junior was shot in Memphis, Tennessee, in nineteen sixty-eight. Several weeks later, Robert Kennedy -- John Kennedy's brother -- was shot in Los Angeles, California. He was campaigning to win his party's nomination for president.

The two murders resulted in riots in cities across the country. The unrest and violence affected many young Americans. The effect seemed especially bad because of the time in which they had grown up.

By the middle nineteen fifties, most of their parents had jobs that paid well. They expressed satisfaction with their lives. They taught their children what were called middle class values. These included a belief in God, hard work and service to their country.

Later, many young Americans began to question these beliefs. They felt that their parents' values were not enough to help them deal with the social and racial difficulties of the nineteen sixties. They rebelled by letting their hair grow long and by wearing unusual clothing. Their dissatisfaction was strongly expressed in music.

Rock and roll music had become very popular in America in the nineteen fifties. Some people, however, did not approve of it. They thought it was too sexual. These people disliked the rock and roll of the nineteen sixties even more. They found the words especially unpleasant.

The musicians themselves thought the words were extremely important. As singer and song writer Bob Dylan said, "There would be no music without the words." Bob Dylan produced many songs of social protest. He wrote anti-war songs before the war in Vietnam became a violent issue in the United States.

One was called "Blowin' in the Wind."

(MUSIC)

In addition to songs of social protest, rock and roll music continued to be popular in America during the nineteen sixties. The most popular group, however, was not American. It was British -- the Beatles -- four rock and roll musicians from Liverpool.

(MUSIC)

The Beatles' song "I Want to Hold Your Hand" went on sale in the United States at the end of nineteen sixty-three. Within five weeks, it was the biggest-selling record in the country.

(MUSIC)

Other songs, including some by the Beatles, sounded more revolutionary. They spoke about drugs and sex, although not always openly.

(MUSIC: "Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds")

In the nineteen sixties, "do your own thing" became a common expression. It meant to do whatever you wanted, without feeling guilty.

(MUSIC: Jimi Hendrix at Woodstock)

Folk singer Joan Baez sits at the corner of Haight and Ashbury streets in San Francisco in September 1967during the "Summer of Love"
Folk singer Joan Baez sits at the corner of Haight and Ashbury streets in San Francisco in September 1967during the "Summer of Love"

Five hundred thousand young Americans did their own thing at the Woodstock music festival in nineteen sixty-nine. They gathered at a farm in New York state. They listened to musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Joan Baez, and to groups like The Who and Jefferson Airplane.

(MUSIC: "Volunteers"/Jefferson Airplane)

Woodstock became a symbol of the young peoples' rebellion against traditional values. Many young people called themselves hippies. Hippies believed there should be more love and personal freedom in America.

In nineteen sixty-seven, poet Allen Ginsberg helped lead a gathering of hippies in San Francisco. No one knows exactly how many people considered themselves hippies. But twenty thousand attended the gathering.

Another leader of the event was Timothy Leary.

TIMOTHY LEARY: "Now, energy comes ... "

He was a former university professor and researcher. Leary urged the crowd in San Francisco to "tune in and drop out." This meant they should use drugs and leave school or their job. One drug that was used in the nineteen sixties was lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD. LSD causes the brain to see strange, colorful images. It also can cause brain damage.

(MUSIC: "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds")

Some people say the Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" was about LSD.

(MUSIC: "The Andy Griffith Show"/Andy Griffith)

As many Americans were listening to songs about drugs and sex, many others were watching television programs with traditional family values. These included "The Andy Griffith Show" and "The Beverly Hillbillies." At the movies, some films captured the rebellious spirit of the times.

These included "The Graduate" and "Doctor Strangelove."

DOCTOR STRANGELOVE (PETER SELLERS): "Deterrence is the art of producing, in the mind of the enemy, the fear to attack.? And so, because of the automated and irrevocable decision-making process, which rules out human meddling, the Doomsday Machine is terrifying and simple to understand, and completely credible and convincing."

GENERAL BUCK TURGIDSON (STERLING HAYDEN): "Gee, I wish we had one of them Doomsday Machines."

(MUSIC: "Goldfinger"/Shirley Bassey)

Others offered escape through spy adventures, like the James Bond films.

Many Americans refused to tune in and drop out in the nineteen-sixties. They took no part in the social revolution. Instead, they continued leading normal lives of work, family, and home. Others, the activists of American society, were busy fighting for peace, and racial and social justice.

(MUSIC: "I Am Woman"/Helen Reddy)

Women's groups, for example, were seeking equality with men. They wanted the same chances as men to get a good education and a good job. They also demanded equal pay for equal work.

A widely popular book on women in modern America was called "The Feminine Mystique." It was written by Betty Friedan and published in nineteen sixty-three. The idea known as the feminine mystique was the traditional idea that women have only one part to play in society. They are to have children and stay at home to raise them. In her book, Ms. Friedan urged women to establish professional lives of their own.

In the early nineteen sixties, a committee was appointed to investigate the condition of women. It was led by Eleanor Roosevelt. She was a former first lady. The committee's findings helped lead to new rules and laws. The nineteen sixty-four Civil Rights Act guaranteed equal treatment for all groups. This included women. After the law went into effect, however, many activists said it was not being enforced. The National Organization for Women -- NOW -- was started in an effort to correct the problem.

The movement for women's equality was known as the women's liberation movement. Activists were called "women's libbers." They called each other "sisters." Early activists were usually rich, liberal white women. Later activists included women of all ages, women of color, rich and poor, educated and uneducated. They acted together to win recognition for the work done by all women in America.

(MUSIC)

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

___

This was program #215.

肯尼迪當選美國總統,對許多美國人來說,這位年輕的總統給美國帶來了希望。但是,肯尼迪1963年遇刺身亡,這讓許多人覺得那種希望也隨著他死去了,這種想法在年輕人、少數族裔和少數族裔權益的支持者中尤其強烈。

一個純真和充滿希望的年代很快被憤怒和暴力沖突所吞噬。更多的美國人參加抗議活動,要求結束對黑人的不公正待遇,結束越戰,讓婦女獲得同男性完全平等的地位。60年代中期約翰遜當美國總統時,白宮外面幾乎天天都有反對越戰的示威活動。1968年3月,約翰遜宣布他不會尋求連任總統。

除肯尼迪外,另外兩位美國名人也在60年代被殺害。一位是民權運動領袖馬丁.路德.金,他是1968年在田納西的孟菲斯被槍殺的。另外一位是肯尼迪總統的弟弟羅伯特.肯尼迪,他在加州的洛杉磯被槍殺,當時他正參加總統大選,希望能獲得民主黨的提名。

這兩個人的遇刺導致美國全國各地的城市發生暴動。騷亂和暴力沖突影響了許多美國年輕人。這一代年輕人所處的人生階段和歷史環境讓他們很難接受60年代發生的這些事情。

這是因為在50年代中期時,這些年輕人的父母一代基本上都有待遇不錯的工作,他們對生活感到滿意,教導自己的孩子所謂中產階級的價值觀,包括相信上帝、勤奮工作、為國家服務。

而后來的社會現實讓許多美國年輕人開始質疑這些價值觀。他們覺得,父母教給他們的這些想法不足以應對60年代的社會問題和種族矛盾。于是他們開始反抗,他們留長發,穿奇裝異服,并通過音樂來盡情表達對生活的不滿。

從50年代開始,搖滾樂在美國興起。不過,有些人并不認同這種音樂。他們覺得這種音樂里有太多關于性的內容。對這些人來說,60年代的搖滾樂就更糟糕了,歌詞內容特別讓人反感。

但音樂人自己卻覺得歌詞非常重要。就像著名創作歌手鮑勃.迪倫說的那樣,"沒有歌詞,就談不上音樂。"迪倫創作了許多反映社會抗議的歌曲,越戰問題在美國引發暴力沖突前,他就寫了一些反戰歌曲,其中一首是"Blowin' in the Wind"─"飄蕩在空中"。

除了社會抗爭歌曲外,其它內容的搖滾樂也繼續風靡60年代的美國。不過,最受歡迎的樂隊并不是來自美國,而是來自英國利物浦的四人樂隊──甲殼蟲。他們的歌曲"I Want to Hold Your Hand" 1963年年底進入美國市場,五個禮拜后就成為銷售冠軍。甲殼蟲樂隊的其它歌曲以及其它搖滾樂隊的作品具有更強的革命性。歌詞或直白或隱含地涉及毒品和性。

在20世紀60年代,"do your own thing"成為一個時髦的說法。這個說法可以翻譯成我行我素,我走我路,也就是說做自己想做的事,不用覺得有罪惡感。

1969年,50萬美國年輕人就在武德斯托克音樂節上展現了真我的風采。他們聚集在紐約州的一個農場上,聆聽吉米.亨德里克斯、瓊貝茲、"誰人"樂隊和"杰斐遜飛機"樂隊的演唱。

20世紀60年代,反傳統的價值觀在美國年輕人中流傳開來,而武德斯托克音樂節成為價值觀的標志性事件。許多年輕人把自己稱為嬉皮士,他們堅信,美國應該有更多的愛和個人自由。1967年,詩人艾倫.金斯堡領導了美國舊金山的嬉皮士大集會,沒人知道到底有多少人把自己看成嬉皮士,不過,有兩萬人參加了這次聚會。蒂莫西.利里是這次活動的另外一名領導人。

利里原本是大學教授兼研究員。他號召參加舊金山嬉皮士集會的人們都去吸毒,并且退學,辭職。在60年代,一種很流行的毒品是LSD, 它是一種迷幻劑,能讓吸毒的人看到怪異,色彩繽紛的影像,同時也可能造成腦損傷。一些人認為,披頭士的歌曲"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" 露西在綴滿鉆石的天空, 實際所指的就是LSD.

就在許多美國人聽著關于毒品和性的搖滾樂時,另外很多美國人則在看著反映傳統家庭價值觀的電視節目,包括"安迪格里菲思秀" 和"貝弗利山人"。

而在電影方面,一些影片抓住了當時人們的反叛精神,比如電影"畢業生"和"奇愛博士"。電影中的"奇愛博士"說:"所謂遏制,就是在敵人頭腦中制造對襲擊的恐懼。因此,由于做決定的過程是自動的,不可逆轉的,不受人為干擾的,所以末日機器就很恐怖,很容易理解,并且完全具有可信度和說服力。"對此,劇中的巴克將軍回答說:"老天爺,我真希望自己有臺這樣的機器。"另外一些電影則通過描寫間諜的傳奇來讓人們暫時忘掉現實,比如電影007系列。

不過,二十世紀60年代,還有許多美國人拒絕吸毒和退學辭職,相反,他們不參加社會革命,而是繼續正常地上班下班,過家庭生活?;褂幸恍┤聳敲攔緇岬幕疃聳?,他們忙于為和平、種族平等和社會正義而戰。

比如,婦女團體就在爭取獲得和男性的平等權利。婦女們希望獲得和男性一樣的機會,去獲得良好的教育,找好的工作。她們還要求同工同酬。

"女性的神話"是描述當代美國婦女狀況的一本著名暢銷書。它的作者是貝蒂.弗里丹,這本書在1963年出版。所謂"女性的神話"指那種認為女性在社會中只能扮演一種角色的想法,而這個角色就是生孩子,在家里照顧孩子。弗里丹在她的書中則敦促婦女們建立自己的職業生活。

1960年代早期,美國政府成立了一個專門調查婦女社會狀況的委員會,由前第一夫人埃莉諾.羅斯福領導。這個委員會的調查結果幫助政府出臺了新的法規和法律。1964年的人權法案保障了對所有社會團體的平等對待,其中包括婦女。不過,在這條法律生效后,許多活動人士說,法律并沒有得到執行。為了糾正這個問題,美國成立了全國婦女組織。

這場爭取兩性平等的運動被稱為婦女解放運動,參與者則被稱為婦女解放運動者,她們自己則以姐妹相稱。早期的婦女解放運動者大多是富有、思想開放的白人婦女。后來,不同年齡、膚色、收入狀況和教育水平的女性都加入了這個運動,她們共同努力,讓社會認可了美國所有女性所作出的貢獻。

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