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中体育比分直播网:#21: Struggle to Balance Power Between Big States and Small States 第21集 - 費城制憲大會:艱難平衡大小州之間的權力

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ANNOUNCER:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Detail from Washington as Statesman at the Constitutional Convention by Junius Brutus Stearns, 1856
Detail from ''Washington as Statesman at the Constitutional Convention,'' by Junius Brutus Stearns, 1856

In May of seventeen eighty-seven, a group of America's early leaders met in Philadelphia. They planned to make changes in the Articles of Confederation, which created a weak union of the thirteen states. But instead of changes, the convention produced a new document.

This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Richard Rael continue the story of the United States Constitution.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Last week, we told how the convention reached agreement on a national judiciary. Delegates approved a Supreme Court. And they agreed that the national legislature should establish a system of lower national courts.

上次我們談到了費城制憲大會在司法體制的問題上達成了共識。代表們同意建立一個聯邦最高法院,并由國會負責設立聯邦下級法院系統。

The national executive -- or president -- would appoint the judges. These courts would hear cases involving national laws, the rights of American citizens, and wrongdoing by foreign citizens in the United States.

法官由總統任命。這些法院負責受理涉及聯邦法律、公民權利和外國人在美國境內犯罪的案件。

The existing system of state courts would continue to hear cases involving state laws.

現存的州級法院則繼續受理涉及州一級法律的案子。

We also told how the convention heard different proposals for a national government. Virginia and New Jersey offered their plans. Alexander Hamilton of New York presented a third proposal. It would give the national government almost unlimited powers.

制憲大會還就聯邦政府的機制聽取了不同的建議。主要建議有三個,分別由維吉尼亞、新澤西州的代表,以及紐約州的亞歷山大·漢密爾頓提出。漢密爾頓主張,聯邦政府應該享有無限的權力。

Hamilton's ideas were not popular. After Hamiliton's five-hour speech, one delegate said, "Hamilton is praised by everybody. He is supported by no one."

這種主張在大會代表里沒有任何市場。他長達五個小時的講話結束后,一名代表說,“每個人都贊揚漢密爾頓,但是沒有一個人支持他?!?/p>

Delegates voted to reject the New Jersey Plan. They did not even vote on Hamilton's plan. From that time, all their discussions were about the plan presented by Virginia.

與會代表投票否決了新澤西州的提案,對漢密爾頓的提議索性連票都沒有投,剩下的時間完全用來討論維吉尼亞州代表們提出的計劃。

VOICE ONE:

Detail from 'The United States Senate in Session'; the artist is unidentified
Detail from 'The United States Senate in Session'; the artist is unidentified

The delegates began to discuss creation of a national legislature. This would be the most hotly debated issue of the convention. It forced out into the open the question of equal representation. Would small states and large states have an equal voice in the central government?

與會代表們接下來討論建立國會的問題,這可是最棘手的,涉及到每個州的人口多少與其在國會里的發言權之間的關系。

One delegate described the situation this way. "Let us see the truth," he said. "This is a fight for power, not for liberty. Small states may lose power to big states in a national legislature. But men living in small states will have just as much freedom as men living in big states."

有一個代表說,“說白了,這是爭奪權力,而不是爭取自由。人口少的州在國會里的權利可能會輸給人口多的州,但是各州居民享受的自由都是一樣的?!?/p>

The issue brought the deepest emotions to the surface. One day, Gunning Bedford of Delaware looked straight at the delegates from the largest states.

"Gentlemen!" he shouted. "I do not trust you. If you try to crush the small states, you will destroy the confederation. And if you do, the small states will find some foreign ally of more honor and good faith who will take them by the hand and give them justice."

與會代表們圍繞這個問題展開唇槍舌戰。來自德拉瓦州的岡寧·貝德福德在一次辯論中瞪著那些人口多的州的代表,大吼道,“先生們!我不信任你們。如果你們要壓制我們這些小州,你們就會毀掉整個邦聯。如果是這樣的話,我們就要去找那些更有信譽和誠意的外國盟友,從他們那里得到公正?!?/p>

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The debate on legislative representation -- big states against small states -- lasted for weeks that summer in Philadelphia. Delegates voted on proposals, then discussed other proposals, then voted again.

制憲大會的代表們整個夏天都在沒完沒了地圍繞國會代表權的問題進行辯論、表決、再辯論、再表決。

By the beginning of July, they were no closer to agreement than they had been in May. As one delegate said: "It seems we are at the point where we cannot move one way or another."

從五月到七月,沒有任何進展。一名代表說,“看起來我們現在是寸步難行?!?/p>

So the delegates did what large groups often do when they cannot reach agreement. They voted to create a committee. The purpose of the committee was to develop a compromise on representation in the national legislature. The so-called "Grand Committee" would work by itself for the next several days. The rest of the delegates would rest and enjoy themselves during the July Fourth holiday.

因此,代表們決定建立一個委員會,就國會代表權問題提出一份大家都能接受的意見。在接下來的幾天里,這個委員會的成員埋頭苦干,而其他人則放假,慶祝七月四號的獨立日。

VOICE ONE:

July Fourth -- Independence Day. It was a national holiday in the United States. It marked the eleventh anniversary of America's Declaration of Independence from British rule. It was a day for parades, fireworks, and patriotic speeches.

七月四號是美國的法定假日。1787年七月四號是美國宣布脫離英國獨立建國十一周年。獨立日這天,美國到處都有游行、煙火表演和愛國演說。

The celebration was especially important in Philadelphia. It was the city where the Declaration of Independence was signed. Now it was the city where a new nation was being created.

費城是獨立宣言簽署的地方,又是新國家的誕生地,因此慶?;疃繞淙攘?。

Convention president George Washington led a group of delegates to a ceremony at a Philadelphia church. They heard a speech written especially for them.

制憲大會主席喬治·華盛頓帶著一些代表到費城一家教堂參加活動,聽取了一篇專門寫給他們的演講。

"Your country looks to you with both worry and hope," the speaker said. "Your country depends on your decisions. Your country believes that men such as you -- who led us in our war for independence -- will know how to plan a government that will be good for all Americans.

演講者說,“你們的國家懷著憂慮和希望的心情關注著你們,你們的國家要靠你們做出的決定。你們的國家相信,你們這些獨立戰爭中的領袖,知道如果規劃一個對所有美國人都有利的政府?!?/p>

"Surely," the speaker continued, "we have among us men who understand the science of government and who can find the answers to all our problems. Surely we have the ability to design a government that will protect the liberties we have won."

他接著又說,“我們中間肯定有了解政府體制的人才,有解決困境的人才,我們肯定能夠規劃出一個政府,?;の頤搶粗灰椎淖雜??!?/p>

VOICE TWO:

The delegates needed to hear such words. Just a few days before, Benjamin Franklin had expressed his thoughts about the convention. He was not hopeful.

費城大會代表們需要這些鼓勵之詞。就在幾天前,本杰明·富蘭克林曾表達了對制憲大會前景的悲觀。

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin

Franklin said: "We seem to feel our own lack of political wisdom, since we have been running around in search of it. We went back to ancient history for examples of government. We examined different forms of republics which no longer exist. We also examined modern states all around Europe. But none of these constitutions, we found, work in our situation."

他說,“我們感覺自己缺乏政治智慧,我們上溯遠古,研究早已不復存在的政治體制,也放眼今天,參考歐洲各地的現行制度,最后發現,沒有任何一種憲法適合我們的需要?!?/p>

Franklin urged the convention to ask for God's help. He said each meeting should begin with a prayer.

富蘭克林要求制憲大會尋求上帝的幫助,每次開會前先要祈禱。

Hugh Williamson of North Carolina quickly ended any discussion of Franklin's idea. His words were simple. The convention, he said, had no money to pay a minister to lead the delegates in prayer.

北卡羅來納州的休·威廉森立即對富蘭克林的建議提出了反駁。他的理由很簡單,制憲大會沒錢請牧師帶領大家進行禱告。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The convention returned to its work on July fifth. Delegates heard the report of the Grand Committee about representation in the national legislature. The report had two proposals. The Grand Committee said both must be accepted or both rejected.

獨立日過后,制憲大會的代表們7月5號復會,聽取了國會代表權委員會的報告。報告包括兩項提案。委員會成員說,要么兩項議案全都接受,要么全都拒絕。

The report described a national legislature with two houses. The first proposal said representation in one house would be based on population. Each state would have one representative for every forty thousand people in that state. The second proposal said representation in the second house would be equal. Each state would have the same number of votes as the other states.

報告說,美國國會應該包括兩院,其中一院的代表人數根據各州人口決定,每四萬人出一名代表;另外一院里各州的代表人數相同。

VOICE TWO:

The convention already had voted for a national legislature of two houses. It had not agreed, however, on the number of representatives each state would have in each house. Nor had it agreed on how those representatives would be elected.

其實,制憲大會早就投票同意建立國會參眾兩院,只是在各州議員人數和議員的產生方式上存在分歧。

The proposals made by the Grand Committee on July fifth were the same as those made by Roger Sherman of Connecticut a month earlier. In the future, they would be known as the "Great Compromise."

國會代表權委員會7月5號提出的議案完全是照搬了康涅迪克州代表羅杰·謝爾曼一個月前提出的方案,這一方案后來被成為“大妥協”。

Delegates debated the compromise for many days. They knew if they did not reach agreement, the convention would fail. Those were dark days in Philadelphia.

與會代表就此進行了很多天的辯論。他們明白,如果不能達成協議,就是宣告制憲大會的失敗。這是費城制憲大會最黑暗的一段日子。

VOICE ONE:

Later, Luther Martin of Maryland noted that the newspapers reported how much the delegates agreed. But that was not the truth. "We were on the edge of breaking up," Martin said. "We were held together only by the strength of a hair."

馬里蘭州的代表路德·馬丁后來曾談起,當時的報道都說大會代表在多少問題上達成了一致,但這并非事實。他說,“當時的情況千鈞一發,大會險些陷入破裂?!?/p>

Delegates Robert Yates and John Lansing of New York had left the convention in protest. But George Mason of Virginia declared he would bury his bones in Philadelphia before he would leave without an agreement.

紐約州的代表羅伯特·耶茨和約翰·蘭辛退出大會,以示抗議。但是維吉尼亞州的代表喬治·梅森則宣布,達不成協議,他誓死也不離開費城。

Even George Washington was depressed. He wrote to Alexander Hamilton, who had returned to New York temporarily.

"I am sorry you went away," Washington said. "Our discussions are now, if possible, worse than ever. There is little agreement on which a good government can be formed. I have lost almost all hope of seeing a successful end to the convention. And so I regret that I agreed to take part."

當時,就連喬治·華盛頓也感到十分沮喪。他在寫給臨時回紐約的亞歷山大·漢密爾頓的信中說,“眼下的辯論比以往任何時候都要糟糕,在組建一個有效政府的問題上,大家的看法南轅北轍。我幾乎喪失了對大會成功的所有希望,真后悔當初同意來參加?!?/p>

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

During the summer of seventeen eighty-seven, the delegates argued long and hard about how much power to give a central government. But that question was not the most serious issue facing the convention.

1787年夏天,費城制憲大會的代表們就聯邦政府的權限展開了持久和激烈的辯論。然而,這個問題并不是代表們面臨的最嚴重的問題。

Many years later, James Madison explained. He said the most serious issue was deciding how the states would be represented and would vote in a national government. That question, he said, was the one which most threatened the writing of the Constitution.

很多年后,詹姆斯·麥迪遜解釋說,當時最棘手的問題是各州在國會里的代表權問題,這才是對美國憲法的產生構成了最大威脅的問題。

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Christine Johnson and read by Frank Oliver and Richard Rael. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English.

網友的學習評論(4條):
作者:xuding45
Big states and small states argued their power in the convention. It was on during a month. Many people lost their hope and contained the president George Washington. The meeting had came to a dangerous cliff.
作者:Freychan
actually, the delegates are great persons, they find a good way to establish their government and balance their power
作者:hliu
"Let us see the truth. This is a fight for power, not for liberty. Small states may lose power to big states in legislature. But men living in small states will have just as much freedom as men living in big states." How nice are those words! and how sneaky is the one who give them! Without equal power, how come each one has the same liberty?
作者:karen
the most serious issue was deciding how the states would be represented and would vote in a national government.
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