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大赢家体育比分310:#19: Early Leaders Debate Presidential Powers

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ANNOUNCER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. Today, Gordon Gaippe and Richard Rael continue the story of the United States Constitution.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Edmund Randolph's speech introducing the Virginia Plan at the convention
Edmund Randolph's speech introducing the Virginia Plan at the convention

Last week, we told how the convention heard details of the Virginia Plan. That was a fifteen-part plan of government prepared by James Madison and other delegates from the state of Virginia.

上次我們談到在費城制憲大會上,維吉尼亞州的代表們提出了一個十五點計劃,專門討論美國的政府體制。

The plan described a national government with a supreme legislature, executive and judiciary. The convention debated the meaning of the words "national" and "supreme." Some delegates feared that such a central government would take away power from the states. But in the end, they approved the proposal.

這項計劃呼吁建立一個國家政府,最高立法、行政和司法機構三權分立。大會代表對“國家”和“最高”等詞匯的意思展開了激烈辯論,有些代表擔心,強大的中央政府會削弱各州的權力,但是最后,建立國家政府的提案還是獲得了批準。

On June first, they began debate on the issue of a national executive.

代表們從6月1號開始討論國家行政首腦的議題。

VOICE ONE:

The Virginia Plan offered several points for discussion. It said the national executive should be chosen by the national legislature. The executive's job would be to carry out the laws made by the legislature. He would serve a number of years. He would be paid a small amount of money.

維吉尼亞州提出的計劃認為,美國的行政首腦應該由國家立法機構來挑選,其職責是落實立法機構通過的法律,任期若干年,領取少量酬勞。

These points served as a basis for debate. Over a period of several weeks, the delegates worked out details of the executive's position and powers.

上述幾點奠定了辯論的基礎。代表們在接下來的幾個星期里,確定了國家行政首腦的具體權力和職能。

VOICE TWO:

It seemed every delegate at the Philadelphia convention had something to say about the issue of a national executive. They had been thinking about it for some time.

在國家行政首腦的問題上,參加費城制憲大會的每一位代表好像都有話要說。很顯然,他們對這個問題已經思考很久了。

Almost every delegate was afraid to give the position extended powers. Almost no one wanted America's chief executive to become as powerful as a king. Still, many of the delegates had faith in the idea of a one-man executive. Others demanded an executive of three men.

幾乎所有人都不愿意看到一個新的君主出現。雖然很多人對一人執政充滿信心,但另外一些人則堅持要求三人執政。

James Wilson of Pennsylvania argued for the one-man executive. He said the position required energy and the ability to make decisions quickly. He said these would best be found in one man.

賓夕法尼亞的詹姆斯·威爾遜主張一人執政,理由是,美國的國家領導人需要精力過人,而且要有迅速決策的能力,因此最好由一個人來擔任。

Edmund Randolph of Virginia disagreed strongly. He said he considered a one-man executive as "the fetus of monarchy."

維吉尼亞州州長埃德蒙·倫道夫強烈反對。他認為,一人執政是“君主制的胚胎”。

John Dickinson of Delaware said he did not denounce the idea of monarchy, of having a government headed by a king. He said it was one of the best governments in the world. However, in America, he said, a king was "out of the question."

德拉瓦州的約翰·迪金森表示,他并不排斥一個由國王領導的政府,王權統治是世界上最好的政治體制之一。但他同時指出,在美國,國王行不通。

The debate over the size of the national executive lasted a long time. Finally, the delegates voted. Seven state delegations voted for a one-man executive. Three voted against the idea.

圍繞國家領袖的地位和職能的辯論進行了很長時間,與會代表最后投票表決,對于一人執政的提案,七個州支持,三個州反對。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

During the debate on size, other questions arose about the national executive. One question was the executive's term. Should he serve just once or could he be re-elected?

在討論過程中,任期長短和是否允許連選連任的問題也被提了出來。

Alexander Hamilton argued for a long term of office. He said if a president served only a year or two, America soon would have many former presidents. These men, he said, would fight for power. And that would be bad for the peace of the nation.

亞歷山大·漢密爾頓認為任期不能太短。他指出,如果總統任期只有一年或是兩年的話,那么過不了多久,美國就會有很多位前總統。他們會爭權奪利,不利于國家和平。

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin argued for re-election. The people, he said, were the rulers of a republic. And presidents were the servants of the people. If the people wanted to elect the same president again and again, they had the right to do this.

本杰明·富蘭克林主張總統可以多次當選。他提出,人民是國家的統治者,總統是人民的公仆,人民有權利多次選擇同一個人擔任總統。

VOICE TWO:

Delegates debated two main proposals on the question. One was for a three-year term with re-election permitted. The other was for one seven-year term. The vote on the question was close. Five state delegations approved a term of seven years. Four voted no.

與會代表們還討論了另外兩個相關問題:一個是任期三年,可以重復當??;另外一個是任期七年,只有一屆。投票表決的結果是,五個州的代表支持七年的一屆任期,四個州的代表反對。

The question came up again during the convention and was debated again. In the final document, the president's term was set at four years with re-election permitted.

這個問題在制憲大會后來的辯論中又被提了出來,最后決定,總統任期四年,可以連選連任。

Next came the question of how to choose the national executive.

接下來自然是總統的產生。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

It was a most difficult problem. The delegates debated, voted, re-debated, and re-voted a number of proposals. James Wilson proposed that the executive be elected by special representatives of the people, called electors. The electors would be chosen from districts set up for this purpose.

這是最棘手的問題。與會代表們就此反復辯論和表決。詹姆斯·威爾遜提議,總統由人民的特別代表選舉產生,這些代表叫做選舉人,按地區分配。

Several delegates disagreed. They said the people did not know enough to choose good electors. They said the plan would be too difficult to carry out and would cost too much money.

有些代表反對這個提案,理由是,普通民眾掌握的信息不足以讓他們推舉出優秀的選舉人,因此這種制度很難推行,而且耗資巨大。

One delegate proposed that the national executive be elected by the state governors. He said the governors of large states would have more votes than the governors of small states. Nobody liked this proposal, especially delegates from the small states. It was defeated.

另外一名代表提議,總統由州長選舉產生,人口越多,州長手里的選票就越多。沒有人支持這項提議,特別是人口少的州。

VOICE TWO:

Another proposal was to have the national executive elected directly by the people. Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts was shocked by this idea.

還有人提議,總統應該由人民直接選舉產生。麻薩諸塞州的埃爾布里奇·格里聽到這個提議后大驚失色。

"The people do not understand these things," he said. "A few dishonest men can easily fool the people. The worst way to choose a president would be to have him elected by the people."

他說,“人民哪搞得懂這種事情,少數不老實的人輕而易舉地就能蒙蔽人民,由人民直接選舉是選擇總統的最糟糕的辦法?!?/p>

So the delegates voted to have the national legislature appoint the national executive. Then they voted against this method. Instead, they said, let state legislatures name electors who would choose the executive. But the delegates changed their mind on this vote, too. They re-debated the idea of direct popular elections.

制憲大會代表最初投票決定由國會任命總統;然后又改變了主意,決定由州議會任命選舉人,再由選舉人推選總統;這一決議后來又被推翻。

The convention voted on the issue sixty times. In the end, it agreed that the national executive should be chosen by electors named by state legislatures.

會議代表就此議題先后投票六十次,最后還是決定,總統應該由州議會提名的選舉人推選產生。

VOICE ONE:

Now, someone said, we have decided how to choose the executive. But what are we to do if the executive does bad things after being appointed? We should have some way of dismissing him.

有人提出,如果總統干了壞事,我們怎樣才能罷免他呢?

Yes, the delegates agreed. It should be possible to impeach the executive, to try him, and if guilty, remove him from office. Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania spoke in support of impeachment. A national executive, he said, may be influenced by a greater power to betray his trust.

與會代表們覺得這個問題確實有道理,因此必須設置彈劾總統的程序,一旦認定總統有罪,就可以趕他下臺。賓夕法尼亞州的州長格瓦諾·莫里斯主張設置彈劾機制,因為總統可能會受到更強大勢力的影響,而背棄人民對他的信任。

The delegates approved a proposal for removing a chief executive found guilty of bribery, treason, or other high crimes.

與會代表因此批準了一項提案。提案規定,總統一旦被認定犯有行賄受賄、叛國或是其他重大罪行,就必須下臺。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The last major question about the national executive was the question of veto power over the national legislature.

關于總統職能的最后一個重要問題就是對國會決定的否決權。

Not one delegate was willing to give the executive complete power to reject new laws. And yet they felt the executive should have some voice in the law-making process. If this were not done, they said, the position of executive would have little meaning. And the national legislature would have the power of a dictator.

與會代表們都不愿意讓總統享有否決立法的終極權力,但是又覺得,總統應該在立法程序中有發言權,否則的話,總統一職就沒什么意義了,而國會就有了獨裁的權力。

James Madison
James Madison

James Madison offered a solution:

The executive should have the power to veto a law, Madison said. But his veto could be over-turned if most members of the legislature voted to pass the law again.

詹姆斯·麥迪遜提出了一個解決辦法。他說,總統應該有權否決立法,但是如果國會大多數成員再次投票通過,國會就可以推翻總統的否決。

VOICE ONE:

The final convention document listed more details about the national executive, or president. For example, it said the president had to be born in the United States or a citizen at the time the Constitution was accepted. He must have lived in the United States for at least fourteen years. He must be at least thirty-five years old.

大會最后的文件中列舉了總統一職更多的細節,比如說,美國總統必須在美國出生,或是憲法生效時已經是美國公民;美國總統必須在美國生活了至少十四年,年紀要在35歲以上。

The executive would be paid. But his pay could not be increased or reduced during his term in office. He would be commander-in-chief of the armed forces. And, from time to time, he would have to report to the national legislature on the state of the Union.

美國總統領取工資,但是工資數額在其任期內不得改變;美國總統是三軍統帥;美國總統要定期向國會進行國情報告。

VOICE TWO:

The final document also gave the words by which a president would be sworn-in. Every four years -- for more than two hundred years now -- each president has repeated this oath of office:

"I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

文件中還規定了美國總統宣誓就職的誓言。兩百多年來,每隔四年,當選的總統就會鄭重宣告--“我謹莊嚴宣誓,必忠實執行合眾國總統職務,竭盡全力恪守、維護和捍衛合眾國憲法?!?

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER: Our program was written by Christine Johnson. The narrators were Gordon Gaippe and Richard Rael. Join us again next week as we continue the story of the Constitution on THE MAKING OF A NATION in VOA Special English. For transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our American history series, go to 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live.

網友的學習評論(4條):
作者:流櫻豪
keep studying
作者:xuding45
In Virginar the delegates had talked about the presidental‘ power again and again。And also the president and congress shared power 。
作者:資文杰
the best management rules
作者:hliu
I see some creative minds at the Philadelphia convetion. The people do not understand these things. A few dishonest people can easily fool the people. The executive should be elected by electors. What if these electors become dishonest or influenced by a great power?
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