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体育比分结果:#175: American History: Hoover Wins in 1928

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Herbert Hoover, right, and the president he followed in office, Calvin Coolidge
Herbert Hoover, right, and the president he followed in office, Calvin Coolidge

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

The presidential election of nineteen twenty-eight gave American voters a clear political choice. The Democratic Party nominated Al Smith. He was the popular governor of the state of New York. The Republican Party chose Herbert Hoover. He was an engineer and businessman who served as secretary of commerce for presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge.

1928年總統大選賦予了美國選民一個清晰的政治選擇。民主黨提名著名的紐約州州長、阿爾弗雷德.史密斯為其總統候選人。共和黨則提名休伯特.胡佛為總統候選人。胡佛是一位工程師和商人,在沃倫.哈丁和加爾文.柯立芝執政期間,曾擔任美國商務部長。

This week in our series, Rich Kleinfeldt and Harry Monroe tell us about the presidential election of nineteen twenty-eight.

RICH KLEINFELDT: Governor Alfred Smith of New York had campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination in nineteen twenty-four. But he was defeated at the party convention by a compromise candidate, John Davis.

紐約州州長阿爾弗雷德.史密斯1924年曾經競選過民主黨的總統候選人提名,但敗給了黨內黑馬約翰.戴維斯。

Four years later, however, Smith could not be stopped. He had a strong record as governor of the nation's most heavily-populated state. He campaigned for the presidency on a policy of building new electric power stations under public control.

然而史密斯并沒有放棄。四年后,他出色勝任美國人口眾多的紐約州州長一職而給人留下深刻印象。他的競選政策是在公眾的控制下建立新的電站。

Smith knew that many conservative Americans might be worried by his new ideas and his belief in strong government. So he chose as his campaign manager a Republican industrial leader who had worked with General Motors, DuPont and other major companies.

史密斯知道,許多保守的美國人也許對他的新政以及大政府理念擔憂,所以,他選擇了一位曾經與通用汽車公司、杜邦公司和其他一些大公司合作過的共和黨工業界領導人擔任自己的競選活動負責人。

Smith hoped this would prove his faith in the American private business system.

史密斯希望這樣做能有助于證明他對美國私有制經濟體系的信心。

Al Smith
Al Smith

HARRY MONROE: Al Smith was a strong political leader and an effective governor. But he frightened many Americans, especially conservative citizens living in rural areas.

阿爾弗雷德.史密斯是一位優秀的政治領導人和富有成效的州長。但他的所作所為使許多美國人,特別是生活在農村地區的保守的美國人感到害怕。

They lived on farms or in small towns. Al Smith was from the city. And not just from any city, but New York City, a place that seemed big and dirty and filled with foreign people and strange traditions. Al Smith's parents came from Ireland. He grew up in New York and worked as a salesman at the Fulton Fish Market.

這些人大都生活在農村或小城鎮,而史密斯卻來自城市,而且不是一般的城市,而是又大又臟,到處都是外國人,稀奇古怪的紐約市。史密斯的父母是愛爾蘭移民。他從小在紐約市長大,在富爾頓魚市當銷售員。

Smith was an honest man. But many rural Americans simply did not trust people from big cities. Al Smith seemed to them to represent everything that was new, different, and dangerous about American life.

史密斯是個誠實的人,但許多來自農村的美國人偏偏不信任大城市里的人,對他們來說,史密斯代表著美國生活方式中一切新的、與眾不同而且危險的事物。

But being from New York City was not Al Smith's only problem. He also opposed the new national laws that made it illegal to buy or produce alcoholic drinks. And he had political ties to the New York political machine. But worst of all, in the eyes of many Americans, Al Smith was a Roman Catholic.

來自紐約并不是史密斯的唯一問題。他還反對美國新頒布的國內法,這些法律規定購買和生產酒精飲料是非法的。此外,他還與紐約市政界有關聯。但在許多美國人眼里,最要命的是,阿爾弗雷德.史密斯是個羅馬天主教徒。

RICH KLEINFELDT: From George Washington through Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and up to Calvin Coolidge, every American president had been male, white, and a Protestant Christian. Of course, there was no law requiring a candidate to be Protestant. But millions of traditional Americans just were not ready to give their vote to a Roman Catholic.

從喬治.華盛頓到托馬斯.杰佛遜,再到亞伯拉罕.林肯,再到加爾文.柯立芝,每一任美國總統都是信仰新教的白人男性。 當然,美國法律并沒有規定必須是新教徒才能夠競選總統。但無數的傳統美國人還沒有做好將選票投給一位天主教徒的準備。

Opponents of the Smith campaign generally did not speak openly about his religion. But many of them were afraid that Smith would take his orders from the Vatican in Rome, instead of working with the Congress in Washington.

史密斯的反對者并沒有公開質疑他的宗教信仰,但他們中許多人都擔心史密斯會接受梵蒂岡羅馬教廷的指令,而不是與華盛頓的國會合作。

Al Smith fought back. He told the country, "I am unable to understand how anything I was taught to believe as a Catholic could possibly be in conflict with what is good citizenship. My faith," he said, "is built upon the laws of God. There can be no conflict between them. "

史密斯這樣做出回應:"我無法理解作為一名天主教徒會與成為一名良好公民發生沖突。我信仰的是上帝的旨意,這二者是不會發生沖突的。"

HARRY MONROE: But many Protestant Americans thought there was a conflict. And they looked to the Republican Party to supply a strong candidate to oppose Smith and the Democrats.

但許多信仰新教的美國人認為這二者是有沖突的,他們希望共和黨能推選出一位有實力的候選人,與史密斯和他的民主黨競爭。

The Republicans did just that. They nominated former secretary of commerce Herbert Hoover, one of the country's most popular men. Hoover was well-known to Americans. People trusted him. And they liked the way he had gained great personal success from poor beginnings.

共和黨沒有辜負大家的期望,他們提名前商務部長休伯特.胡佛為總統候選人。胡佛是一位非常有名的人物,人們都信任他,而且大家都很贊賞他從窮困走向成功的人生歷程。

In fact, Hoover's life story would have pleased Abraham Lincoln, another American who rose from a poor family to fame.

事實上,胡佛的人生歷程與林肯的奮斗歷程很相似,林肯就是從出身貧寒,最后走向成功的人。

Hoover was born in the farm state of Iowa in eighteen seventy-four. His father was a poor metal worker who kept moving his family from state to state.

1874年,胡佛出生在愛奧華州的一個農場里,他父親是一個貧窮的金屬工人,全家不斷從一個州搬到另一個州。

Herbert Hoover's father died when the boy was just six years old. His mother died four years later. Young Herbert had to move to the western state of Oregon to live with his mother's brother.

胡佛只有六歲時,父親就去世了,四年后,母親也去世了。小胡佛不得不到西部的俄勒岡州與舅舅生活在一起。

Herbert's uncle was luckier in life than Herbert's parents. He had made money in the land business. And he helped the boy gain admission to Stanford University in California. At the university, Herbert showed great skill in mathematics. And he decided to go into business as a geologist studying the science of the earth.

跟胡佛的父母比,他的舅舅要幸運的多,他買賣土地賺了錢,資助胡佛考上加州的斯坦福大學。胡佛在大學里顯露出非凡的數學才能。他的專業是地質學。

Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover

RICH KLEINFELDT: After college, Herbert Hoover got a job as a mine worker. During the next several years, Hoover spent most of his time working as an engineer in foreign countries. And he succeeded beyond his greatest dreams. By the time he was forty years old, he had earned more than one million dollars.

大學畢業后,胡佛在礦上找到了工作。在此后的幾年里,胡佛主要時間都在國外擔任工程師,他的成功超出了他的想像,到40歲的時候,他已經賺到了100多萬美元。

After World War One, he organized the effort to provide food for starving people in Europe. He did an excellent job, winning praise from people in Europe and the United States alike. Next, Hoover joined the administration of President Warren Harding, serving as the secretary of commerce. Again, he did a very good job.

一戰結束后,他為歐洲處于饑荒的人們籌集食品,因此受到了歐洲和美國人民的高度贊揚。此后 ,他加入沃倫.哈丁政府的內閣,擔任商務部長。他在這個崗位上干得非常出色。

Hoover left the cabinet in nineteen twenty-five. But two years later, he organized efforts to provide relief for victims of a flood in the southern state of Mississippi. And again, Americans all around the country took note of this quiet, serious man who did such effective work in so many different kinds of situations.

1925年,他離開了沃倫.哈丁的內閣。兩年后,他又為密西西比州洪災災民提供援助。全國民眾都注意到了這個言語不多,做事認真的人,他先后多次出色完成各項工作。

Some Americans, however, did not like Hoover, including some people who usually supported Republicans.

不過,有些美國人并不喜歡胡佛,包括一些通常支持共和黨的人。

For example, many professional Republican politicians did not trust him, because he had spent most of his life in business, not politics. Some stock market traders thought Hoover might change the rules on the New York Stock Exchange. And many farmers believed Hoover had no new ideas about how to solve their growing economic problems.

例如,許多共和黨職業政治家就不相信他,因為他的大部分時間都花在商業上而不是政治領域。一些股票經紀人認為胡佛可能會改革紐約股票交易所的規定?;褂行磯嗯┟裨蛉銜?,胡佛對他們的日益膨脹的經濟問題沒有解決辦法。

HARRY MONROE: This, then, was the choice Americans faced in nineteen twenty-eight. On the one hand, Al Smith. A Democrat. A Roman Catholic. A politician from the city. A man wanting some social change.

這就是1928年美國選民所面臨的選擇。一邊是史密斯,天主教徒,來自大城市的政客,社會變革的推動者。

And on the other hand, Herbert Hoover. A Republican. A businessman who had proven the dream that even a poor boy could become great in America. A man who seemed to succeed with every effort he touched.

另一邊是休伯特.胡佛,共和黨人,商人,他證明了美國夢,一個窮苦的男孩也能實現自己的夢想。他似乎在其所觸及的所有領域都能夠取得成功。

The main issue in the campaign was not economics or religion, but the new national laws banning alcoholic drinks. Hoover was for the laws; Smith against them. The two candidates also argued about how to provide aid to struggling farmers, and how to increase electricity and water supplies.

這次競選的焦點不在經濟問題,也不是宗教問題,而是美國新頒布的禁酒法令。胡佛贊成禁酒法令;而史密斯則反對禁酒法令。這兩位候選人還就如何向農民提供援助,以及如何提高水電供給展開辯論。

RICH KLEINFELDT: Herbert Hoover won the election of nineteen twenty eight. It was one of the greatest victories in presidential history. Hoover won fifty-eight percent of the votes. Smith got just forty percent. And Hoover captured four hundred forty-four electoral votes to Smith's eighty-seven.

最后,休伯特.胡佛贏得了1928年的美國總統大選,這是美國總統選舉歷史上落差最大的選舉之一。胡佛獲得了58%的公眾選票,而史密斯只獲得了40%的公眾選票;胡佛獲得了444張選舉人選票,而史密斯只獲得了87票。

And so it was that the engineer and businessman Herbert Hoover entered the White House in nineteen twenty-nine. There was some trouble the day he moved in. Outgoing President Coolidge was a man who watched every dollar he owned. And he accused some White House workers of stealing his shoes on the day of the inauguration. But -- finally -- safe, conservative, business-like Herbert Hoover was leading the country.

于是,帶有工程師兼商人背景的休伯特.胡佛于1929年入主白宮。在他入主白宮那天,出現了一點小小的不愉快。卸任總統柯立芝特別在乎錢,在宣誓就職那天,他指責白宮的工作人員偷了他的鞋子。宣誓就職后,冷靜、保守、做事干練的胡佛就要開始領導美國了。

HARRY MONROE: The nation's stock market reacted by pushing stock prices to record high levels. Everyone expected that economic growth would continue and expand. But the happy times were just a dream. Within one year, the stock market collapsed. Millions of people lost their jobs. The nation fell into the worst economic crisis it had ever faced.

在這一消息的鼓舞下,美國股票市場不斷攀升。大家都以為經濟會持續增長壯大,但這僅僅是一個夢。在不到一年的時間里,美國股市崩盤,無數人失去工作,整個國家陷入了有史以來最為嚴重的經濟?;?。

Herbert Hoover was not personally responsible for the crisis. In many ways, it was his own bad luck to be elected just before the disaster struck. But it was his job to guide the nation through its troubled waters. And he would prove to be the wrong person to give such leadership.

休伯特.胡佛對這場?;⒉桓河性鶉?。在美國經濟大蕭條到來之際當選總統是他運氣不好。但是,帶領國家走出困境則是他的職責所在。

His four years in office would be one of the most difficult periods in the nation's history. We will look at President Hoover's administration in our next program.

他四年的任期是美國歷史上最為困難時期之一。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Rich Kleinfeldt and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #175

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作者:鄭烈波
his four years in office would be one of the most difficult periods in the nation's history.
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