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500体育比分直播:#174: American History: Foreign Policy During the 1920s

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British and American officials signing a British war loan in 1917
British and American officials signing a British war loan in 1917

FAITH LAPIDUS: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

The nineteen twenties are remembered as a quiet period in American foreign policy. The nation was at peace. Americans elected three Republican presidents in a row: Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. These conservatives in the White House were generally more interested in economic growth at home than in relations with other countries.

對于美國來說,20世紀二十年代是對外政策的平靜時期。此時的美國處于和平年代。美國人先后選出三位共和黨人當總統,分別是:哈丁、柯立芝和胡佛。從總體上說,這些保守派的總統對國內經濟發展比對美國對外關系更感興趣。

But the United States had become a world power. It was tied to other countries by trade, politics and shared interests. And America had gained new economic strength.

但美國畢竟已經成為世界強國,它通過貿易、政治和其它共同利益與其它國家聯系在了一起,此時美國的經濟實力也進一步增強。

This week in our series, Bob Doughty and Shirley Griffith discuss American foreign policy during the nineteen twenties.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Before World War One, foreigners invested more money in the United States than Americans invested in other countries -- about three billion dollars more. The war changed this. By nineteen nineteen, Americans had almost three billion dollars more invested in other countries than foreign citizens had invested in the United States.

第一次世界大戰前,外國對美國的投資超過美國對外國的投資,差額約為30億美元。但一戰扭轉了這一局面,到1919年的時候,美國對外投資反而超過了外國在美投資約30億美元。

American foreign investments continued to increase greatly during the nineteen twenties.

20世紀二十年代,美國對外投資繼續大幅增長。

Increased foreign investment was not the only sign of growing American economic power. By the end of World War One, the United States produced more goods and services than any other nation, both in total and per person.

美國經濟實力的增強不僅僅體現在對外投資的增長上,到一戰結束時,美國所生產的產品和服務無論在總量還是人均上都超過了世界其它國家。

Americans had more steel, food, cloth, and coal than even the richest foreign nations. By nineteen twenty, the United States national income was greater than the combined incomes of Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Canada, and seventeen smaller countries. Quite simply, the United States had become the world's greatest economic power.

美國鋼鐵、食品、服裝和煤碳的產量比世界最富裕的幾個國家的產量都要高。到1920年,美國的國民收入比英國、法國、德國、日本 、加拿大和其它十七個小國家的國民收入的總和還要多。一句話,美國已經成為世界上經濟實力最強大的國家。

A steel worker at a rolling mill in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
A steel worker at a rolling mill in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: America's economic strength influenced its policies toward Europe during the nineteen twenties. In fact, one of the most important issues of this period was the economic aid the United States had provided European nations during World War One.

美國強大的經濟實力影響到了這個時期美國對歐洲的外交政策。事實上,這一時期最重要議題之一就是美國在一戰期間向歐洲提供的援助貸款。

Americans lent the Allied countries seven billion dollars during the war. Shortly after the war, they lent another three billion dollars. The Allies borrowed most of the money for military equipment and food and other needs of their people.

戰爭期間,美國向同盟國提供了70億美元的援助,在戰后不久又提供了30億美元。大部分援助被同盟國用來購買軍事裝備、食品和其它必需品。

The Allied nations suffered far greater losses of property and population than the United States during the war. And when peace came, they called on the United States to cancel the loans America had made. France, Britain, and the other Allied nations said the United States should not expect them to re-pay the loans.

戰爭期間,歐洲各國所遭受的財產和人員損失要遠遠超過美國,因此,和平到來時,歐洲各國呼吁美國免除它們的債務。法國、英國和其它同盟國說,美國不應該指望它們償還債務。

BOB DOUGHTY: The United States refused to cancel the debts. President Coolidge spoke for most Americans when he said, simply: "They borrowed the money." He believed the European powers should pay back the war loans, even though their economies had suffered terribly during the fighting.

可美國拒絕這么做,柯立芝總統說出了大部分美國人的想法。他對歐洲國家的要求簡單回應道:"這些錢是他們向我們借的。"他認為,即使歐洲各國在戰爭期間遭受到嚴重的經濟損失,它們也要償還戰爭債務。

However, the European nations had little money to pay their loans. France tried to get the money by demanding payments from Germany for having started the war. When Germany was unable to pay, France and Belgium occupied Germany's Ruhr Valley. As a result, German miners in the area reduced coal production. And France and Germany moved toward an economic crisis and possible new armed conflict.

然而,歐洲各國實在是沒錢還債。法國試圖以德國發動戰爭為由讓德國支付戰爭賠款,再拿賠款來還美國的錢。但是德國也無力支付戰爭賠款,于是,法國和比利時就占領了德國的魯爾工業區,結果導致那里煤礦減產。法國和德國日益滑向經濟?;?,并面臨再次爆發戰爭的可能。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: An international group intervened and negotiated a settlement to the crisis. The group provided a system to save Germany's currency and protect international debts. American bankers agreed to lend money to Germany to pay its war debts to the Allies. And the Allies used the money to pay their debts to the United States.

最后,一個國際組織出面干預調停,才化解了這場?;?。這個組織設計了一個金融機制,挽救德國的貨幣,?;す收?。美國銀行家們同意借錢給德國,讓德國向同盟國支付戰爭賠款,然后,同盟國再利用德國的賠款來償還它們欠美國的債務。

BOB DOUGHTY: Some Americans with international interests criticized President Coolidge and other conservative leaders for not reducing or canceling Europe's debts.

柯立芝總統和其他一些保守派的領導人拒絕減免歐洲債務的做法招來一些有國際視野的美國人的批評。

They said the debts and the new payment plan put foolish pressure on the weak European economies. They said this made the German currency especially weak. And they warned that a weak economy would lead to serious social problems in Germany and other countries.

這些人說,新的債務支付機制是愚蠢的,讓本來就脆弱的歐洲經濟雪上加霜,特別會使德國貨幣更加疲軟。同時他們警告說,脆弱的經濟將會導致德國和其它國家出現嚴重的社會問題。

However, most Americans did not understand the serious effect that international economic policies could have on the future of world peace. They believed that it was wrong for the Europeans -- or anyone -- to borrow money and then refuse to pay it back.

然而,大多數美國人并沒有認識到國際經濟政策對日后世界和平會產生多么嚴重的影響。他們認為,無論是歐洲人還是世界上任何人,欠債不還就是不對。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: Many Americans of the nineteen twenties also failed to recognize that a strong national military force would become increasingly important in the coming years. President Coolidge requested very limited military spending from the Congress. And many conservative military leaders refused to spend much money on such new kinds of equipment as submarines and airplanes.

20世紀二十年代,許多美國人也沒有意識到強大的軍事實力會在后來的幾年中變得越來越重要??鋁⒅プ芡誠蜆崽嶠壞木芽гに閌可跣?,而許多保守的軍方領導人拒絕在潛水艇和飛機等新式武器開發方面投入大量資金。

Some Americans did understand that the United States was now a world power and needed a strong and modern fighting force.

不過,也有一些美國人已經認識到,美國現在是一個強國,需要強大和現代化的軍隊。

One general, Billy Mitchell, publicly criticized the military leadership for not building new weapons. But most Americans were not interested. Many Americans continued to oppose arms spending until the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii in nineteen forty-one.

一位叫比利.米切爾的將軍公開批評軍方領導人不建造新武器的做法。但大多數美國人對這個問題沒有興趣。他們反對軍費開支,直到1941年日本偷襲珍珠港,這種態度才出現轉變。

BOB DOUGHTY: American policy toward the League of Nations did not change much in the nineteen twenties.

20世紀二十年代,美國對國聯的態度沒有多少改變。

In nineteen nineteen, the Senate denied President Wilson's plea for the United States to join the new League of Nations. The United States, however, became involved unofficially in a number of league activities. But it continued to refuse to become a full member. And in nineteen thirty, the Senate rejected a proposal for the United States to join the World Court.

1919年,參議院否決了威爾遜總統關于美國加入國聯的要求。美國非正式地參與了國聯的一些行動。盡管如此,美國仍然拒絕成為國聯的正式成員。1930年,參議院還拒絕了讓美國加入國際法庭的提議。

The United States also continued in the nineteen twenties to refuse to recognize the communist government in Moscow. However, trade between the Soviet Union and the United States increased greatly during this period. And such large American companies as General Electric, DuPont, and R-C-A provided technical assistance to the new Soviet government.

20世紀二十年代,美國拒絕承認莫斯科的共產黨政府,然而,蘇聯與美國之間的貿易往來在這一時期卻顯著增加。通用電器、杜邦公司和美國無線電公司等大企業都向蘇聯新政府提供技術援助。

(MUSIC)

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: The Coolidge administration was involved actively in events in Latin America. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes helped several Latin American countries to settle border disputes peacefully.

柯立芝政府積極參與拉美事務。國務卿查爾斯.埃文斯.休斯幫助好幾個拉丁美洲國家和平解決了邊界爭端問題。

In Central America, President Coolidge ordered American Marines into Nicaragua when President Adolfo Diaz faced a revolt from opposition groups. The United States gave its support to more conservative groups in Nicaragua. And it helped arrange a national election in nineteen twenty-eight. American troops stayed in Nicaragua until nineteen thirty-three.

在中美洲,當時的尼加拉瓜總統遇到反對派挑戰時,柯立芝總統下令美國海軍陸戰隊進入尼加拉瓜,支持尼加拉瓜國內的保守派團體,協助舉辦了1928年的尼加拉瓜全國大選。美國在尼加拉瓜駐軍直到1933年。

However, American troops withdrew from the Dominican Republic during this period. And Secretary of State Hughes worked to give new life to the Pan American union.

與此同時,美國從多米尼加共和國撤軍。休斯國務卿還使泛美聯盟獲得了新的生機。

BOB DOUGHTY: Relations with Mexico became worse during the nineteen-twenties. In nineteen twenty-five, Mexican President Plutarco Elias Calles called for laws to give Mexico more control over its minerals and natural wealth. American oil companies resisted the proposed changes. They accused Calles of communism. And some American business and church leaders called for armed American intervention.

美國與墨西哥的關系在20世紀二十年代轉向惡化。1925年,墨西哥總統卡萊斯要求通過立法加強墨西哥對本國礦產等自然資源的控制。美國的石油公司反對這么做,并指責卡萊斯是共產分子,美國商界和宗教界的一些領導人要求美國政府出兵干涉。

However, the American Senate voted to try to settle the conflict peacefully. And American diplomat Dwight Morrow helped negotiate a successful new agreement.

然而,美國參議院投票決定,盡量通過和平方式解決同墨西哥的爭端。美國外交家德懷特.莫羅成功推動兩國談判,讓雙方達成了新協議。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH: These American actions in Nicaragua and Mexico showed that the United States still felt that it had special security interests south of its border. But its peaceful settlement of the Mexican crisis and support of elections in Nicaragua showed that it was willing to deal with disputes peacefully.

美國在尼加拉瓜和墨西哥的行動表明,美國仍然覺得拉丁美洲對其安全利益至關重要。和平處理與墨西哥的?;橢С幟峒永洗笱≡蟣礱?,美國愿意以和平方式解決同拉美國家的糾紛。

America's policies in Latin America during the nineteen-twenties were in some ways similar to its policies elsewhere. It was a time of change, of movement, from one period to another. Many Americans were hoping to follow the traditional foreign policies of the past. They sought to remain separate from world conflict.

從某種意義上說,20世紀二十年代美國對拉美國家的政策和它對其他國家的政策差不多。這是一個變革、發展、過渡的時期。許多美國人仍然希望沿襲傳統的對外政策,盡量不卷入世界沖突。

BOB DOUGHTY: The United States, however, could no longer remain apart from world events. This would become clear in the coming years. Europe would face fascism and war. The Soviet Union would grow more powerful. And Latin America would become more independent.

然而,時局使美國不能再對世界事務冷眼旁觀。在后來的幾年中,這一點變得更為明確。歐洲將面臨法西斯主義和戰爭的威脅,蘇聯日益強大,拉美各國變得更為獨立。

The United States was a world power. But it was still learning in the nineteen twenties about the leadership and responsibility that is part of such power.

美國已經是世界強國,但在20世紀二十年代,美國仍在學習如何對待與之俱來的領導地位和職責。

(MUSIC)

FAITH LAPIDUS: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Bob Doughty and Shirley Griffith. You can find our series online with pictures, transcripts, MP3s and podcasts at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #174

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作者:鄭烈波
the united states was a world power .but it was still learning in the nineteen twenties about the leadership and responsibility that is part of such power.
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