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球探体育比分app下载:#173: American History: Calvin Coolidge Wins in Election of 1924

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Voters in Lanham, Maryland, during the election of 1924
Voters in Lanham, Maryland, during the election of 1924

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

Vice President Calvin Coolidge became president in nineteen twenty-three following the death of President Warren Harding. Coolidge quickly gained the trust of most Americans by investigating the crimes of Harding's top officials. The conservative economic policies of the new president also won wide support.

1923年,美國總統沃倫.哈丁去逝后,副總統加爾文.柯立芝接任哈丁的職位??鋁⒅ハ鋁畹韃楣∈窒鹿僭鋇姆缸鐨形?,從而贏得了大多數美國人的信任。同時,他采取保守的經濟政策,也使他獲得了廣泛的支持。

Coolidge had one year to prove his abilities to the American people before the election of nineteen twenty-four.

距1924年美國總統大選還有一年,柯立芝要利用這段時間向美國人證明他的領導能力。本周,我們就向你講述1924年的大選。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe tell us about that election.

(MUSIC)

KAY GALLANT: Coolidge was a quiet man who believed in limited government policies. But his silence hid a fighting political spirit. Coolidge had worked for many years to gain the White House. He would not give it up without a struggle.

柯立芝是個話不多的人,他認為政府的功能和規模應該是有限的。但在他平靜的外表下卻隱藏著好勝的政治精神??鋁⒅ノ氚墜丫芏范嗄?,他不會把當總統的機會拱手讓出。

Coolidge moved quickly after becoming president to gain control of the Republican Party. He named his own advisers to important jobs. And he replaced a number of officials with people whose loyalty he could trust.

柯立芝接任總統后迅速采取行動,掌握了共和黨的控制權。他任命自己的顧問擔任重要職位,還啟用自己信任的、忠誠的人,替換了原先的許多政府官員。

Most Republicans liked Coolidge. They felt his popular policies would make him a strong candidate in the presidential election. For this reason, Coolidge faced only one serious opponent for the Republican presidential nomination in nineteen twenty-four.

大多數共和黨人喜歡柯立芝,他們覺得,他那些深受歡迎的政策將使他成為1924年總統大選強有力的候選人。

Coolidge's opponent was the great automobile manufacturer, Henry Ford of Michigan. Ford had been a candidate for Congress in nineteen eighteen. He lost that election. But after the election, some people in his company began to call for Ford to be the Republican presidential nominee in nineteen twenty-four.

所以,在1924年共和黨總統候選人提名大會上,柯立芝只有一位強勁對手。他就是來自密歇根州的汽車大王亨利.福特。1918年,福特曾經競選過國會議員,但落選了。不過,那次競選后,福特公司的一些人開始鼓勵他去參選1924年共和黨總統候選人的提名。

Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge

HARRY MONROE: Ford was one of history's greatest inventors and manufacturers. But he had limited skills in politics. Ford was poorly educated. He had extreme opinions about a number of groups. He hated labor unions, the stock market, dancing, smoking, and drinking alcohol. But most of all, Ford hated Jews. He produced a number of publications accusing the Jewish people of organizing international plots.

福特是歷史上最偉大的發明家和工業家之一,但他的政治能力非常有限。他沒受過什么教育,對一些社會團體抱有很極端的看法。他痛恨工會、股市、跳舞、抽煙和飲酒,而在他所有痛恨的事情中,他最恨的是猶太人。他出版了許多刊物,指責猶太人組織從事國際陰謀。

At first, Ford appeared to be a strong opponent to Coolidge. But soon, he realized that Coolidge was too strong politically. His economic policies were popular among the people. And the nation was at peace. The party could not deny Coolidge's nomination. Ford himself put an end to his chances by telling the nation that it was "perfectly safe with Coolidge."

起初,福特似乎是柯立芝的有力對手,但不久,福特就意識到,柯立芝在政治上的強大是自己望塵莫及的??鋁⒅サ木謎呤艿矯攔裰詰幕隊?,美國當時又處于和平時期,共和黨不會否決對柯立芝的提名。于是,福特自己結束了競選,他告訴全國人民:"選柯立芝當總統絕對不會錯。"

Calvin Coolidge won the presidential nomination easily at the nineteen twenty-four Republican convention in Cleveland, Ohio. The Republican delegates chose Charles Dawes of Illinois to run with him as the vice presidential candidate.

就這樣,加爾文.柯立芝輕而易舉地贏得了共和黨1924年總統大選候選人提名,提名大會是在俄亥俄州的克里夫蘭市舉行的。共和黨代表們還推舉伊利諾依州的查爾斯.道斯為副總統候選人。

KAY GALLANT: The Democratic Party was much more divided. Many of the groups that traditionally supported Democratic candidates now were fighting against each other. For example, many farmers did not agree on policies with people living in cities. The educated did not agree with uneducated people. And many Protestant workers felt divided from Roman Catholic and Jewish workers.

與共和黨不同,民主黨內存在更多的意見分歧。原先許多支持民主黨的陣營正在相互爭斗。例如,許多農民在一些政策上與城市人意見相左,受過良好教育的人又與未受過教育的人有分歧。許多信奉新教的工人覺得和天主教徒以及猶太教徒存在隔閡。

These differences made it hard for the Democratic Party to choose a national candidate. There was little spirit of compromise.

這些分歧使民主黨很難選出自己的總統候選人,而各方又都不想妥協。

Two main candidates campaigned for the Democratic nomination. The first was former Treasury Secretary William McAdoo. McAdoo had the support of many Democrats because of his strong administration of the railroads during the world war. Democratic voters in Southern and Western states liked him because of his conservative racial policies and his opposition to alcohol.

當時的主要候選人有兩個。第一個是前財政部長威廉.麥卡杜。他因為在一戰期間管理鐵路得力而得到許多民主黨人的支持,另外,美國南部和西部的民主黨選民也喜歡他,因為他持保守的種族政策,而且主張禁酒。

The second main candidate was Alfred Smith, the governor of New York. Smith was a Roman Catholic. He was very popular with people in the Eastern cities, Roman Catholics, and supporters of legal alcohol. But many rural delegates to the convention did not trust him.

第二位主要候選人是紐約州州長阿爾佛雷德.史密斯。他是天主教徒,在美國東部城市、天主教徒和反對禁酒的人中深受歡迎,但許多從農村地區前來參加民主黨提名大會的代表并不信任他。

HARRY MONROE: The Democratic Party convention met in New York City. It quickly became a battle between the more liberal delegates from the cities and the more conservative delegates from rural areas.

民主黨提名大會在紐約市舉行,很快就變成了城市自由派代表與農村保守派代表之間的論戰。

It was July. The heat was intense. Speaker after speaker appealed to the delegates for votes. One day passed. Then another. For nine days, the nation listened on the radio as the delegates argued about the nomination.

時值七月,天氣非常炎熱。演說者們一個接一個上臺,爭取代表們的支持。一天過去了,又一天過去了。連續九天,美國全國人民通過廣播收聽這些代表們不停地爭論著有關提名的問題。

The delegates voted ninety-five times without success. Finally, McAdoo and Smith agreed to withdraw from the race. Even then, the delegates had to vote eight more times before they finally agreed on compromise candidates.

民主黨代表們先后投了95次票,還是選不出一個候選人。最后,麥卡杜和史密斯同意退出。盡管如此,民主黨代表們仍然進行了八次投票才最終達成妥協。

The Democratic delegates finally chose John Davis to be their presidential nominee. Davis was a lawyer for a major bank. He had served briefly under President Wilson as ambassador to Britain. The delegates also chose Charles Bryan to be the vice presidential candidate. Bryan was the younger brother of the famous Democrat and populist leader, William Jennings Bryan.

他們推選約翰.戴維斯為民主黨總統候選人。戴維斯是美國一家大銀行的律師,在威爾遜擔任總統期間,曾短暫地出任過美國駐英國大使。民主黨代表們還推選查爾斯.布萊恩為副總統候選人。查爾斯.布萊恩的哥哥是著名民主黨人,民粹領袖威廉.詹寧斯.布萊恩。

Robert LaFollette
Robert LaFollette

KAY GALLANT: There also was a third party in the nineteen twenty-four election. Many of the old progressive supporters of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson opposed the choices of the Republicans and Democrats. They thought the country needed another candidate to keep alive the spirit of reform.

1924年,美國還有第三個政黨參加大選。西奧多.羅斯福和伍德羅.威爾遜等許多老牌進步派支持者反對共和黨和民主黨所選擇的總統候選人,他們認為,美國應該有另一位候選人,繼承和發揚改革精神。

Progressive candidates had done well in the congressional election of nineteen twenty-two. But following the election, communists had gained influence in one of the major progressive parties. Most progressives did not want to join with communists. So, they formed a new progressive party. The new party named Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin to be its presidential candidate.

在1922年的國會選舉中,進步派候選人表現不錯。但那次選舉后,一個主要的進步黨被共產黨控制,而大多數進步派人士并不想加入共產黨人的行列。所以,他們成立了一個新的進步派政黨,并提名威斯康星州參議員羅伯特.拉弗萊特為總統候選人。

LaFollette campaigned for increased taxes on the rich and public ownership of water power. He called for an end to child labor and limits on the power of the courts to interfere in labor disputes. And LaFollette warned the nation about the dangers of single, large companies gaining control of important industries.

拉弗萊特的競選主張包括給富人加稅,以及水資源的國有化,他要求停止使用童工,并限制法院干涉勞工糾紛的權力。他還對單一的大型企業壟斷國家重要產業的危險提出警告。

HARRY MONROE: Coolidge won the nineteen twenty-four election easily. He won the electoral votes of thirty-five states to just twelve for Davis of the Democrats. LaFollette won only Wisconsin, his home state. Coolidge also won more popular votes than the other two candidates together.

最終,柯立芝輕松贏得了1924年的美國總統大選,他獲得了35個州的選舉人票,而民主黨的戴維斯只獲得了12個州的選舉人票,拉弗萊特只獲得了老家威斯康星州的選舉人票??鋁⒅ニ竦玫難∶衿幣脖繞淥轎緩蜓∪說募悠鵠椿茍?。

The American people voted for Coolidge partly to thank him for bringing back honesty and trust to the White House following the crimes of the Harding administration. But the main reason was that they liked his conservative economic policies and his support of business.

美國人之所以選擇柯立芝,部分原因是感謝他在哈丁政府腐敗叢生之后,再一次把誠實和信任帶回了白宮,但更重要的原因是,美國人喜歡他保守的經濟政策和他對企業的支持。

KAY GALLANT: LaFollette's Progressive Party died following the nineteen twenty-four election. Most of his supporters later joined the Democrats. But the reform spirit of their movement remained alive through the next four years.

拉弗萊特的進步黨在1924年大選結束后解散,他的支持者后來大多加入了民主黨,但他們所推動的改革精神在此后的四年中始終存在。

They were difficult years for Progressives. Conservatives in Congress passed laws reducing taxes for corporations and richer Americans.

對于進步派來說,這段時期十分困難。國會保守派通過法律,給企業和富人減稅。

HARRY MONROE: Progressives fought for reforms in national agriculture policies. Most farmers did not share in the general economic growth of the nineteen twenties. Instead, their costs increased while the price of their products fell. Many farmers lost their farms.

進步派爭取改革全國農業政策。起因是,大多數美國農民并沒有分享到20世紀二十年代美國經濟整體發展所帶來的好處,相反,他們的生活成本升高了,而農產品價格卻下跌了。許多農民失去了自己的農場。

Farmers and progressives wanted the federal government to create a system to control prices and the total supply of food produced. They said the government should buy and keep any extra food that farmers produced. And they called for officials to help them export food.

農民和進步派希望聯邦政府建立一個控制物價上漲和食品總供給量的體系。他們認為,聯邦政府應該收購并儲存農民生產的剩余農產品,并呼吁政府幫助他們出口糧食。

Coolidge and most Republicans rejected these ideas. They said it was not the business of a free government to fix farm prices. And they feared the high costs of creating a major new government department and developing export markets.

柯立芝和大多數共和黨人拒絕了這些主張。他們說,控制農產品價格并不是自由政府該做的事,而且他們還擔心,如果成立一個新的大型政府部門并發展出口市場,會帶來巨大的政府開支。

Coolidge vetoed three major farm reform bills following his election.

柯立芝當選后否決了三項重大農業改革議案。

KAY GALLANT: The debate over farm policy was, in many ways, like the debate over taxes or public controls on power companies. There was a basic difference of opinion about the proper actions of government.

在很多方面,有關農業政策改革的辯論很像有關稅收、電力公司國有化問題的爭論。人們對政府在這些問題上應該怎么做存在根本性的不同看法。

More conservative Americans believed the purpose of government was to support private business, not to control it. But more liberal Americans believed that government needed to do more to make sure that citizens of all kinds could share the nation's wealth more equally.

保守派美國人認為,政府存在的目的是支持私人企業的發展而不是控制它們。但自由派美國人則認為,政府應該采取更多行動,確保社會各個階層的人盡可能平等地分享國家財富。

Coolidge and the Republicans were in control in the nineteen twenties. For this reason, the nation generally stayed on a conservative path. The Democrats and Progressives would have to wait until later to put many of their more liberal ideas into action.

柯立芝和共和黨人在20世紀二十年代掌握著權利,因此,美國基本上仍然走在一條保守的道路上。民主黨和進步黨不得不繼續等待時機,才能把他們的自由派理念付諸行動。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by David Jarmul. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with pictures, transcripts, MP3s and podcasts at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #173

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