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沙巴体育比分结算:#152: Taft Wins Presidency Promising Continued Reform

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William Howard Taft, center, speaking from the back of a rail car during the presidential campaign of 1908
William Howard Taft, center, speaking from the back of a rail car during the presidential campaign of 1908

BOB DOUGHTY:? Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

The United States did not play a very large part in world events during the eighteen hundreds. At the beginning of the nineteen hundreds, however, it expanded its interests throughout the world.

19世紀,美國在世界事務中并沒有扮演特別重要的角色。而在20世紀初,美國把自己的利益擴展到了世界各地。

America's president at that time strongly supported the expansion. He was Theodore Roosevelt, a distantly related cousin of the future president Franklin Roosevelt.

當時的美國總統也非常支持這種擴張,他就是西奧多.羅斯福,美國第二十六任總統。美國后來還出過一位叫羅斯福的總統,就是富蘭克林.羅斯福,這兩位羅斯福是遠房表兄弟。

This week in our series, Shirley Griffith and Frank Oliver complete the story of America's twenty-sixth president, who was also known as Teddy.

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? Theodore Roosevelt became president in nineteen-oh-one after the assassination of President William McKinley. He completed the last three years of McKinley's term. Then he was elected in his own right. Those four years are spoken of as Roosevelt's second term.

西奧多·羅斯福是1901年麥金利總統遇刺身亡后成為美國總統的。他干完了麥金利剩下了三年任期,然后自己競選,當上了總統。這接下來的四年被稱為羅斯福的第二個任期。

It was during this second term that Roosevelt gained his most important foreign policy success. He negotiated an end to a war between Russia and Japan. Later, he was asked to settle another international dispute. At issue was Morocco.

正是在這個"第二任期"中,羅斯福取得了他外交政策上最重要的成功。在他的調解斡旋下,俄羅斯和日本結束了戰爭。后來,他又被邀請去解決另一場國際爭端。這次的問題出在摩洛哥。

A cartoon from Harper's Magazine shows President Roosevelt carrying his
A cartoon from Harper's Magazine shows President Roosevelt carrying his "big stick" while trying to end a dispute of European powers over Morocco

FRANK OLIVER:? In nineteen-oh-four, France and Britain signed an agreement on North Africa. The agreement gave Britain control over Egypt. It gave France responsibility for security and reforms in Morocco. Germany opposed the agreement. It felt threatened by any French-British alliance. And it feared France would block German trade ties with Morocco.

1904年,法國和英國簽定了關于北非地區的協議。根據協議,英國獲得了對埃及的控制權,而法國要負責摩洛哥的安全和改革。德國反對這項協議,感覺任何英法聯盟都是對自己的威脅。德國還擔心法國會切斷德國同摩洛哥的貿易往來。

Germany demanded an "open door" policy that would permit all countries to trade freely in Morocco. It proposed an international conference to settle the dispute. France and Britain rejected the idea. The ruler of Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm the Second, warned that the dispute could lead to war. The Kaiser asked Theodore Roosevelt to intervene.

德國要求實行"門戶開放"政策,使所有國家都可以同摩洛哥進行自由貿易。德國提出召開國際會議來解決糾紛,但法國和英國不同意。德國當時的統治者威廉二世警告說,這一糾紛可能會引發戰爭,他請羅斯福出面干預。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? President Roosevelt agreed to help. Some American lawmakers criticized him. They said it was an American tradition not to get involved in European disputes. But Roosevelt believed peace was more important than tradition. He set up the conference in the Spanish seaport of Algeciras. Twelve European nations and the United States attended.

羅斯福答應幫忙。不過一些美國議員批評說,美國歷來不插手歐洲糾紛。但羅斯福認為,和平比傳統更重要。他在西班牙港口城市阿爾赫西拉斯組織召開會議,12個歐洲國家和美國與會。

The conference agreed to an open door trade policy in Morocco. It organized an international bank to control Morocco's finances. And it gave France and Spain almost complete control over police forces in Morocco's port cities.

會上,各國同意在摩洛哥實行門戶開放政策,并成立了一個國際銀行,控制摩洛哥的財政。大會還允許法國和西班牙控制摩洛哥各港口城市的幾乎所有警力。

FRANK OLIVER:? Theodore Roosevelt had become a powerful world leader. At home, however, he was losing power.

羅斯福成了極有影響力的世界領袖,但在美國國內他的權力卻在減弱。

One reason was an economic depression. Business leaders blamed it on Roosevelt. They said it was the result of his efforts to gain government control over industry. The other reason was one he had created himself.

造成這個情況的一個原因是經濟蕭條。商界領袖們把這怪到羅斯福頭上。他們說,這是羅斯福非要讓政府控制產業界的結果。羅斯福權力減弱的另外一個原因則是他自己造成的。

At that time, there was no law limiting a president's term in office. But America's first president, George Washington, had established a tradition of only two terms. When Theodore Roosevelt won the election of nineteen-oh-four, he announced he would not be a candidate in nineteen-oh-eight. He had completed the term of President McKinley. He would serve a full term of his own. That was enough. Later, he said: "I would be willing to cut off my hand if I could call back that statement."

當時,美國法律并不限制一個人最多能當幾屆總統。但是,美國第一任總統喬治·華盛頓建立了一個不成文的傳統,那就是總統最多干兩屆。西奧多.羅斯福1904年贏得總統選舉時,他曾宣布,自己不會參加1908年的選舉。他干完了麥金利總統剩下的任期,并自己干滿另外一任,這就夠了。他后來說:"如果能讓我把那句話收回來,砍掉我一只手我都愿意。"

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? During his last year in office, Roosevelt was a "lame duck" president. Everyone knew he would not be back. There was little political reason to support him.

在羅斯福任期的最后一年,他成了"跛腳鴨"總統。所有人都知道他不可能連任,所以從政治上也沒必要支持他了。

He faced increased opposition from Congress and from his own Republican Party. His final message to Congress was extremely bitter.

結果,羅斯福受到國會和共和黨越來越大的阻力,他在國會發表的最后一場演說充滿了怒氣。

President Roosevelt accused Congress and the court system of working only to help rich Americans. He called for a tax on earnings. He called for legislation to give workers a greater share of the nation's wealth. The House of Representatives voted to reject the message. It said Roosevelt had failed to show respect for the legislative branch of government.

他指責國會和司法部門只為美國的富人服務,他提出開征所得稅。他要求國會立法,讓工人分享更多的國家財富。國會眾議院投票否決了這些提議,并說羅斯福對政府立法機構不夠尊敬。

FRANK OLIVER:? Roosevelt refused to give up hope for the policies he believed America needed. He would not be able to fight for these policies himself. But he could find a presidential candidate who would. He was sure the people would vote for his choice. He decided on his close friend, Secretary of War William Howard Taft.

羅斯福沒有放棄希望,繼續力推那些他認為有必要的政策。單靠他自己的力量是不行的,但他可以找到一位有這種能力的總統候選人。他確信,人民會投票支持他選中的候選人。這個人就是羅斯福的密友、當時的戰爭部長威廉·霍華德.塔夫脫。

William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft

Taft had spent most of his life in government service. He had been a judge in both a state court and a federal court. He had been a lawyer in the justice department. And he had been governor of the Philippines.

塔夫脫在政府中供職已久,曾經擔任過州法院和聯邦法院的法官,還當過司法部的律師和菲律賓總督。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? There was one problem, however. Taft did not want to be president. He really wanted to be Chief Justice of the United States. But there were no immediate openings on the Supreme Court. Also, his wife, his brothers, and his good friend -- Theodore Roosevelt -- urged him to run. So, Taft agreed to be a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in nineteen-oh-eight.

可問題是,塔夫脫不想當總統,而是一心想當美國最高法院首席大法官。不過當時,最高法院并沒有空缺。他的妻子、兄弟以及好朋友西奧多.羅斯福都勸他競選總統。于是,塔夫脫同意成為1908年總統大選的共和黨候選人。

When he won the nomination, Taft said: "Mister Roosevelt led the way to reform. My job -- if elected -- will be to complete and perfect his programs."

獲得黨內提名后,他說:"羅斯福先生領導我們走上了改革之路,如果當選總統,我的任務就是完成和完善他的計劃。"

The Democratic Party nominated William Jennings Bryan. Bryan had been a candidate two times before, without success.

民主黨提名布萊恩為候選人。此前,他曾兩次被提名為候選人,但都沒能當選。

FRANK OLIVER:? The presidential campaign was not especially exciting. William Howard Taft did not like being on the campaign trail. He was a big, heavy man. He did not like to travel. Roosevelt urged him to campaign with more energy.

1908年的總統選舉不怎么精彩。塔夫脫不喜歡出去競選拉票。他身材魁梧、富態,不喜歡長途跋涉。羅斯福敦促他把更多精力投入競選活動中。

"Hit hard, old man," Roosevelt said. "Make the people see the truth. Let them know that for all your gentleness and kindliness, there never existed a man who was a better fighter when the need arose."

他說:"老兄,你得加把勁兒。要讓人們看到真正的你,要讓他們知道,你雖然看著溫和、好說話,但一旦有需要,你會是最強的斗士!"

Roosevelt's advice and strong support helped Taft win a big victory on election day.

羅斯福的建議和堅定支持幫塔夫脫在選舉日大獲全勝。

William Howard Taft with Theodore Roosevelt
William Howard Taft with Theodore Roosevelt

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? A few weeks after Taft was sworn-in as president, Roosevelt left on a year-long trip overseas. He spent most of the time hunting wild animals in Africa.

在塔夫脫宣誓就職后幾個星期,羅斯??既ス庥衛荒?,大部分時間在非洲打獵。

President Taft wrote a warm goodbye letter to his friend. He promised to do his best as president. But he admitted he could not lead as Roosevelt had done. In fact, Taft said, he was still surprised when anyone called him "Mister President." Each time it happened, he turned around to see if Roosevelt was there.

塔夫脫給羅斯福寫了一封熱情洋溢的告別信,他承諾要盡心盡力當好總統。不過他也承認,自己不能像羅斯福那樣領導眾人。塔夫脫說,當別人稱他"總統先生"時,他依然感到吃驚。一聽到"總統先生"這幾個字,他就會四下里找羅斯福,覺得別人在叫羅斯福。

FRANK OLIVER:? There was no question that Taft's way of leading was much different from Roosevelt's. Taft believed a president should not interfere too deeply in the actions of Congress. He also believed a president should not claim special powers or rights. He believed in the supreme power of the law...even if the law did not work very well.

毫無疑問,塔夫脫的領導風格和羅斯福的迥然不同。塔夫脫認為,總統不應過深地干預國會的行動,他還認為,總統不應該要求特殊的權力和權益。他認為,法律才應是至高無上的,即使是不怎么發揮作用的法律。

The progressives who had supported Roosevelt did not support Taft. They said he was too friendly with conservatives. They said he had surrendered to special interest groups. Taft, for his part, did not like progressives. He thought they were too emotional and extreme.

曾經支持羅斯福的進步派人士沒有支持塔夫脫。他們認為塔夫脫對保守派太客氣了,說他向特殊利益集團屈服。塔夫脫自己也不喜歡進步派,覺得這些人太感情用事,太極端。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? Yet Taft worked hard to put into law many parts of Roosevelt's progressive programs. He was successful in several areas.

不過,塔夫脫盡力把羅斯福的許多進步主義政策和措施確立為法律。他在幾個領域取得了成功。

A cartoon in the magazine
A cartoon in the magazine "Judge" urging President Taft to have his own policies and not follow those of President Roosevelt who served before him

During his administration, for example, a separate Department of Labor was established. Two Constitutional amendments won congressional approval and were sent to the states for ratification.

比如,在他執政期間,政府建立了獨立的勞工部,兩條憲法修正案獲得國會批準,被送交各州認可。

One amendment provided for a federal tax on earnings. The other provided for direct, popular election of senators. Taft also worked even harder than Roosevelt to break up companies, or trusts, that blocked economic competition.

其中一項修正案規定聯邦政府征收所得稅,另一個修正案規定由選民直接選舉聯邦參議員。此外,在瓦解阻礙經濟競爭的托拉斯集團方面,塔夫脫做得比羅斯?;掛?。

FRANK OLIVER:? At the same time, Taft failed in several areas.

但同時,塔夫脫也在一些方面遭遇了失敗。

He signed legislation that lowered import taxes. Neither businessmen nor progressive Republicans liked it. He negotiated a free trade agreement with Canada. The Canadian parliament rejected it.? He believed in protecting America's wilderness areas. Yet he did not believe existing laws gave him the right to close public lands to private development. So he was seen as an enemy of conservation.

他簽署了降低進口關稅的法案,引起商人和進步派共和黨人的不滿。他和加拿大談成了一項自由貿易協定,但遭到了加拿大國會的拒絕。塔夫脫想要?;っ攔囊吧勻磺?,但他又覺得現有法律并沒有授權去阻止私人公司開發公共土地。結果,他被看成是環保的敵人。

These struggles and failures made Taft's four years as president the unhappiest of his life.

這些斗爭和失敗使當總統的這四年成為塔夫脫人生中最不快樂的一段時光。

SHIRLEY GRIFFITH:? The final blow came in an effort to reduce the powers of the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The speaker was a conservative Republican. Progressive Republicans opposed him. The issue split the party.

最后的打擊來到了,起因是是否要削弱眾議院議長的權力。當時的議長是保守派共和黨人,他遭到進步派共和黨的反對。這使共和黨陷入分裂。

Theodore Roosevelt -- far from home -- read about the trouble. He had promised to stay out of politics. But each of the opposing groups in his party had asked for his support.

遠在海外的羅斯福得知了這件麻煩事。雖然他已經承諾不問政治,但共和黨的兩派力量都找到他,希望能得到他的支持。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY:? Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shirley Griffith and Frank Oliver.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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作者:鄭烈波
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