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球探体育比分去升级版:#130: Indian Wars, Part 1

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BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

The United States began to expand west during the middle eighteen hundreds. People settled in the great open areas of the Dakotas, Utah, Wyoming, and California. The movement forced the nation to deal with great tribes of Native American Indians. The Indians had lived in the western territories for hundreds of years.

19世紀中期,美國開始向西部拓殖。人們遷居到達科他、猶他、懷俄明和加利福尼亞等廣袤人稀之地。西進運動帶來了一個必然的問題,就是如何與大量土著印第安人部落打交道。印第安人已經在西部地區生活了數百年。

Settlers and cattle ranchers pushed the Indians out of their homelands. The result was a series of wars between the tribes and the federal government.

但是,不斷涌來的新移民和牧場主把他們趕出了家園。結果,印第安部落與聯邦政府之間暴發了一系列沖突。

This week in our series, Steve Ember and Sarah Long tell about some of these conflicts.

STEVE EMBER: At first, the United States government had just one policy to deal with the Indians. It was brutal. Whenever white men wanted Indian land, the tribes were pushed farther west. If the Indians protested, or tried to defend their land, they were destroyed with crushing force.

起初,美國政府對印第安人只有一個非常殘忍的政策。那就是:無論白人什么時候需要印第安人的土地,印第安部落就得向西遷移,如果他們反抗或試圖?;ぷ約旱耐戀?,就會被武力消滅。

By the middle eighteen-hundreds, almost all the eastern Indians had been moved west of the Mississippi River. They were given land in Indian territory in what is now the state of Oklahoma. The government described these Indians as "civilized." This meant they were too weak to cause more trouble. Many agreed to follow the ways of the white men.

到十九世紀中期,美國東部幾乎所有的印第安人都被趕到了密西西比河以西的地方。政府在現在的俄克拉荷馬州內劃出一些土地給印第安人,并把這些印第安人稱為"良民"。意思是,這些印第安人已經軟弱聽話,不會再惹麻煩了。很多人這樣的"良民"也接受了白人的生活方式。

SARAH LONG: The Indians of the western grasslands were different. They refused to give up their way of life. These plains Indians were always on the move, because they hunted buffalo -- the American bison. They followed great groups of the animals across the grassy plains. At that time, there were millions of these animals in the American west.

然而,西部平原上的印第安人可不同。他們拒絕放棄自己固有的生活方式。這些人靠狩獵美洲野牛為生,所以總要不斷遷移。他們在廣袤的草原上逐野牛群而居。當時,美國西部有數百萬頭野牛。

The Indians of the plains depended on the buffalo for almost everything they needed. Many of them were fierce fighters. The plains Indians did not want white men crossing their hunting lands. They often tried to destroy the wagon trains carrying settlers to California and Oregon.

印第安人幾乎從野牛身上獲得生活所需的一切。許多印第安人驍勇善戰。這些生活在平原上的印第安人不想讓白人經過他們的狩獵地區,他們經常試圖搗毀那些載著白人向加利福尼亞和俄勒岡遷移的大篷車。

STEVE EMBER: The United States army was given the job of keeping peace. Soldiers were sent to build roads and forts in the western plains. They tried to protect the wagon trains from Indian attacks. They tried to keep white settlers from invading Indian lands. There were many fights between the soldiers and the plains Indians. The soldiers had more powerful weapons. They usually won.

美國軍隊奉命維持地方和平。軍方派士兵在西部平原上修建道路和堡壘,設法?;の鶻沓擋皇苡〉詘踩說墓セ?,并設法讓白人不侵犯印第安人的土地。士兵和印第安人之間多次交戰。士兵們的武器裝備更精良,因此他們通?;袷?。

SARAH LONG: Some plains Indians tried to live peacefully with the white men. One such group was part of the Sioux tribe, called Santee Sioux. It was the largest and most powerful group in the west.

有些印第安人想與白人和平共處。蘇族部落的一個分支桑蒂.蘇就是這樣。這個部落是西部大平原人最多、最強大的印第安人部落。

The Santee Sioux lived along the northeastern edge of the Great Plains in what is now the state of Minnesota. They signed treaties with the government giving up ninety percent of their land. The Santee agreed to live in a small area. In exchange, the United States agreed to make yearly payments to the tribe. This made it possible for the Indians to buy food and other things from white traders.

桑蒂.蘇人居住在大平原的東北邊緣,也就是現在的明尼蘇達州。他們和政府簽署了一系列協議,同意放棄他們所擁有的90%的土地,只居住在一塊很小的地方。作為交換,美國政府同意每年向桑蒂.蘇人付錢。這樣,這些印第安人就有錢從白人商人那里購買食物和其它物品。

STEVE EMBER: Trouble started, however, in the summer of eighteen sixty-two. The government was late giving the Indians their yearly payment. As a result, the Indians lacked the money to buy food. The white traders refused to give the Indians credit to buy food. One trader said: "If they are hungry, let them eat grass."

但是,1862年夏天,問題出現了。聯邦政府沒能按時向印第安人付款,結果,印第安人就沒錢買食品了。白人商人拒絕印第安人賒帳,其中有一個商人甚至說:"如果他們餓了,就讓他們吃草去吧。"

The Indians were hungry. Soon, their hunger turned to anger. Finally, the local Indian chief called his men together. He gave the orders for war.

印第安人的確非常饑餓,而饑餓很快變成了憤怒。最后,當地的印第安人首領把族人叫到一起,下令向白人開戰。

Early the next morning, the tribe attacked the trading stores. Most of the traders were killed, including the man who had insulted the Indians. He was found with his mouth filled with grass.

第二天清晨,部落襲擊了貨棧,大部分商人被殺,包括那位侮辱印第安人的商人,他的嘴里還被塞滿了草。

The governor of Minnesota sent a force of state soldiers to stop the Indian revolt. The soldiers had artillery. They killed several hundred Indians in battle. They hanged several others. Soon, the revolt was over.

明尼蘇達州州長派軍隊帶上大炮去制止印第安人的起義。軍人們打死了數百名印第安人,還絞死了一些人。起義很快就被鎮壓下去了。

SARAH LONG: Trouble came next to parts of Colorado and Wyoming. This is where the Sioux Indians and the Cheyenne Indians lived. The chief of the Lakota Sioux tribe was named Red Cloud. The Indians fought bitterly to keep white men out of their hunting grounds. After two years of fighting, with many deaths on both sides, the government decided the struggle was too costly. It asked for peace.

在科羅拉多和懷俄明的一些地方,印第安人與政府的矛盾也陸續產生。生活在那里的印第安人是蘇族和夏延族。蘇族拉科塔分支的印第安人首領叫紅云。這里的印第安人為了不讓白人進入他們的狩獵地區而浴血奮戰。經過兩年的交戰,雙方都有大量傷亡。聯邦政府認為這樣打代價實在太大,因此提出和解。

The Sioux and the Cheyenne agreed. They were given a large area of land north of Wyoming in the Dakota territory. They also were given the right to use their old hunting lands farther north. The government agreed to close a road used by whites to cross the hunting grounds. And all soldiers were withdrawn from Sioux country.

蘇族和夏延族人接受了這一提議。于是,政府把位于懷俄明以北的達科他地區的大片土地劃給印第安人,還允許印第安人到更遠的北方去打獵。政府還同意關閉一條白人穿越印第安人狩獵地區時用的道路。所有的軍人也都從蘇族印第安人居住區撤走。

STEVE EMBER: The war ended and peace came to the Sioux and the Cheyenne. With peace came a new United States policy toward other Indians of the West. The government decided to put aside an area of land for each tribe. The land was called a "reservation." Each tribe would live on its own reservation.

戰爭結束,蘇族和夏延族人得到了和平。美國政府也隨即出臺了一項針對西部其他印第安人的政策。政府決定,給每一個印第安部落都劃定一片土地,并將其稱為"印第安人保留地"。每個印第安人部落都居住在屬于自己的保留地內。

Most of the reservations were in Indian territory in what is now the state of Oklahoma. Other reservations were in Dakota near the land of the Sioux.

絕大多數印第安人保留地位于現在的俄克拉荷馬州的印第安人居住區,還有一些位于蘇族印第安人居住區附近的達科他地區。

SARAH LONG: The government believed it would cost less money and fewer lives to keep Indians on reservations. The Indians would be away from possible trouble with white settlers. Instead of moving freely over the plains to hunt buffalo, the Indians would live in one place. They would receive food and money from the government.

聯邦政府認為,讓印第安人住在保留地內,可以為政府省錢,也不必在戰爭中消耗人力。而且,印第安人可能就不會再和白人找麻煩了。根據新的政策,印第安人將不再自由地到處去打野牛,而是生活在一個固定的地方,從政府那里獲得食品和錢。

Officials came from Washington to explain this new policy to the Indians. A big meeting was held. Chiefs representing many tribes attended. The chiefs spoke, one after another, to the government officials.

華盛頓的聯邦政府派官員召開大會,向印第安人解釋這個新政策。許多印第安人部落的首領出席了會議。這些首領們一個接一個向政府官員發表了他們的想法。

STEVE EMBER: All of the chiefs said they, too, wished to live in peace with the white men. But many questioned the decision to move to reservations. One who did so was Chief Ten Bears of the Comanche tribe. He said:

所有的部落首領都說,他們也希望與白人和平相處,但他們許多人質疑讓印第安人居住在保留地內的決定??坡兇宓氖琢焯?middot;比爾斯這樣說道:

"There are things which you have said to me that I do not like. You said you wanted to put us on a reservation. You said you would build houses for us. I do not want your houses. I was born on the plains where the wind blows free, and there is nothing to break the light of the sun. I was born where everything breathed a free breath. I want to die there...not within walls."

"你們說的一些事,我不喜歡。你們說,想讓我們住進一塊保留地,還要為我們蓋房。我不想要你們的房子。我出生在大平原上,那里風自由吹拂,沒有任何東西可以阻擋太陽的光輝。我出生在一個萬物都自由的地方,我也想死在那里,而不是死在四面墻中間。"

SARAH LONG: So the government and the Indians reached a compromise. The tribes were given reservations in Indian territory. But they were also given permission to hunt buffalo in a wide area south of the reservations. The Indians agreed to give up all their old lands. They agreed to live in peace on the reservations.

政府與印第安人達成了妥協。政府給印第安人劃定保留地,但也允許印第安人在保留地以南的大片野地里捕殺野牛。印第安人同意放棄他們原有的所有土地,同意在保留地里平靜地生活。

In exchange, the United States promised to give the Indians all the food, clothing, and other things they needed. It also promised to give them schools and medical care.

作為交換,政府承諾給印第安人提供他們所需的全部食品、衣服和其它東西,還答應給印第安人建學校和醫院。

STEVE EMBER: The Indians were not happy with this agreement. They did not want to give up their old ways of living. However, they saw they had no choice. The government was too strong.

印第安人對這份協議并不滿意,他們不想放棄原有的生活方式。然而,他們意識到,他們別無選擇,因為政府實在是太強大了。

They waited weeks, then months, for help to move to the new reservations. They could not understand the delay in carrying out the agreement. The delay was in Washington, D.C. Congress could not agree on how much money to spend on the Indians. So the lawmakers refused to approve the agreement. They left the situation unsettled.

印第安人等著政府來幫他們搬到新劃定的保留地,可是他們等了幾個星期、幾個月,卻不見人來。他們不明白為什么政府會拖延執行已達成的協議。原來,問題出在華盛頓。國會議員們無法就在印第安人身上花多少錢達成一致。結果,議員們就拒絕批準已達成的協議,而是留下這個問題日后解決。

Again, Indians were forced to watch angrily as white settlers began moving onto lands they had agreed to give up. As the whites moved in, the buffalo and other animals left. The Indians had difficulty finding food.

白人定居者開始進入印第安人已經同意放棄的土地,而印第安人只能忍氣吞聲看著他們這么做。白人涌入時,野牛和其它動物都跑了,因此,印第安人很難找到食物。

SARAH LONG: Soldiers shared their food with the Indians. It was not enough. Western officials sent urgent messages to Washington asking for supplies for the Indians. No supplies could be sent until Congress approved the money to buy them.

軍人把一些食物分給印第安人,但這遠遠不夠。西部地區的政府官員向華盛頓發出緊急救助信,要求華盛頓向印第安人提供生活必需品。但是,由于國會沒有批準資金,政府無法給印第安人派送食品。

As before, some of the Indians became angry and refused to wait any longer. Their anger led to new fighting. In the end, it was a fight that failed to win back their land.

和以前一樣,一些印第安人憤怒了,拒絕繼續等待。他們的憤怒導致了新的沖突。結果,印第安人戰敗,沒有爭回他們的土地。

That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Sarah Long.? Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

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