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led体育比分管理软件:#111: Victory at Vicksburg Splits the Confederacy

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In eighteen sixty-three, Union forces defeated Confederate forces in the bloodiest battle of the American Civil War -- the Battle of Gettysburg. Soon after that, the Union won another important victory, seizing Vicksburg, Mississippi.

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue our story of the Civil War with the Battle of Vicksburg.

1863年,在美國南北戰爭最慘烈的一場戰役--葛底斯堡戰役中,北方軍隊擊敗南方軍隊。此后沒過多久,北軍又奪取了密西西比的維克斯堡,再傳捷報,今天我們就來回顧這段歷史。

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln in 1863
Abraham Lincoln in 1863

In November eighteen sixty-three, President Lincoln traveled to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He spoke at the opening of a military cemetery. He felt very tired by the time he got back to Washington. Doctors thought he had a cold. Later, they said he had a weak form of smallpox.

1863年11月,林肯總統前往賓夕法尼亞的葛底斯堡,在葛底斯堡陣亡將士公墓的落成典禮上講話。林肯返回華盛頓后,感到非常疲倦,醫生本以為林肯感冒了,后來卻發現是染上了天花。

The president remained in bed. Few visitors could see him. There was a danger the smallpox could spread.

林肯臥床休養,因為天花傳染,所以很少有人來看他。

Lincoln got better after a few weeks. He began working on his yearly message to Congress. After two-and-a-half years of war, he had good news to report. Union armies had gained two important victories at about the same time.

幾個星期后,林肯逐漸康復,開始準備一年一度在國會發表的國情咨文。經過兩年半的戰斗,林肯這次終于有好消息可以匯報了。北軍幾乎在同一時間取得了兩場重大勝利。

VOICE TWO:

One was the battle of Gettysburg. Union forces led by General George Meade had defeated Confederate forces led by General Robert E. Lee. They pushed Lee back into Virginia. It was the last Confederate invasion of the North.

其一是葛底斯堡戰役。北軍將領米德將軍率兵擊退了羅伯特·李率領的南軍,把南軍趕回了維吉尼亞,這是南軍最后一次攻打北方。

The day after the battle of Gettysburg, Union forces defeated Confederate forces at Vicksburg, Mississippi. This victory gave them control of the Mississippi River. And it split the states of the Confederacy.

葛底斯堡戰役勝利后的第二天,北軍又在密西西比的維克斯堡打敗了南軍。北軍于是有效控制了密西西比流域,將南方邦聯的地盤攔腰切開。

VOICE ONE:

Union General Ulysses Grant had been trying to seize Vicksburg for several months. It was not easy. Vicksburg lay on the east side of the Mississippi River. It was built high above the water on a rocky cliff. As the river flowed past Vicksburg, it turned in sharply at the base of the cliff and then continued on to the Gulf of Mexico.

在這之前的幾個月里,北軍將領格蘭特一直試圖奪取維克斯堡,但是困難重重。維克斯堡位于密西西比東岸,建在一個陡峭的山崖上,密西西比河橫穿維克斯堡,在山腳下急轉彎,流向墨西哥灣。

The Confederates had placed cannon all along the sharp turn in the river. Enemy boats sailing past, made easy targets.

南軍在密西西比河轉彎處部署了很多火炮,途經此處的敵方船只,很容易成為他們的靶子。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Ulysses Grant
Ulysses Grant

General Grant began the campaign for Vicksburg in late eighteen sixty-two. His army was west of the Mississippi River. He needed to get to the other side to attack the city.

格蘭特將軍從1862年年底開始攻打維克斯堡。他的部隊位于密西西比西岸,首先需要過河。

First, Grant planned to cross the river into northern Mississippi state. Then he would march south to Vicksburg. He crossed the river. But Confederate forces destroyed his transportation and supply lines. He withdrew. Early in eighteen sixty-three, he tried again.

格蘭特第一步計劃是過河,進入密西西比,然后向南進發,直抵維克斯堡。北軍士兵按計劃過了河,但是南軍部隊摧毀了他們的交通和供給線。格蘭特只好撤退。1863年初,又卷土重來。

VOICE ONE:

This time, he planned to sail his men past Vicksburg. They would cross the river a little downstream, turn and attack.

這次,格蘭特打算讓部下坐船繞過維克斯堡,在下游過河,然后回過頭來發動進攻。

Grant moved forty thousand men to a point ten kilometers from Vicksburg. He told the men to put down their guns and take up digging tools. They would build a canal to carry them past the turn in the river, past the Confederate cannon.

格蘭特率領四萬人馬在距離維克斯堡十公里的地方停下來,下令士兵放下武器,拿起鐵鍬,挖一條運河,繞過河流急轉彎的地方,避開南軍的火炮。

VOICE TWO:

For weeks, the Union soldiers worked on the canal. They dug through mud and wet clay. Many died of disease. After more than a month of digging, engineers decided that the canal would not work. Grant ordered the men to build another canal. Then another. They did not work, either.

北軍士兵花了好幾個星期的時間挖筑運河,期間很多人生病死去。一個多月過后,北方工程人員得出結論說,這條運河不能用。格蘭特命令部下再挖另外兩條運河,結果也都沒有成功。

By this time, the Union soldiers had become experts at digging canals. One of them said: "As soon as the canals at Vicksburg are finished, we are going to cut a canal across the upper part of Florida. We will cut that state off from the Confederacy, and give it to the alligators!"

運河沒挖成,北軍士兵倒成了挖運河的專家。其中一個人就曾表示,“維克斯堡運河一挖好,我們就要再挖一條運河,橫切佛羅里達上半部,把這個州從南方邦聯切割出來,送給鱷魚?!?/p>

VOICE ONE:

Finally, in April, eighteen sixty-three, Grant gave up all ideas of getting past Vicksburg without a fight. He decided to march most of his men down the west side of the river to a steamboat landing thirty kilometers below Vicksburg. He would send his navy boats past the city at night and hope for the best.

1863年4月,格蘭特決定放棄所有迂回戰術,硬闖。他下令大部人馬沿著河西岸進發,目的地是距離維克斯堡大約三十公里處的一個蒸汽船??柯臚?。與此同時,格蘭特下令海軍戰艦夜間摸黑闖關。

It took three weeks for Grant's men to reach the steamboat landing. The roads were very rough. In many places, they were covered with water. Engineers had to cut trees and cover the muddy roads with logs so wagons would not sink. They had to build bridges over the many streams.

格蘭特的部下千辛萬苦,整整花了三個星期的時間才到達預定的船碼頭,沿途很多地方都被水淹沒,工程人員不得不砍樹,把木樁搭在水面上,不讓馬車沉沒。除此以外,他們還要在很多溪流上架設橋梁。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

On the night of April sixteenth, the Union navy made its run past Vicksburg. Eight gunboats and three empty troop boats floated down the dark river. Their engines were silent.

1863年4月16日夜間,北方海軍采取行動了。八條戰艦和三條沒坐人的運兵船趁夜色悄悄地順流而下。

The Confederates, however, had built fires along the river. They saw the Union boats and began to shoot. They hit most of the boats, but destroyed only one. The damaged boats reached safety below the city.

然而,南軍在河流兩岸點火照明,藉著火光發現了北軍船只,立即開火。大多數北軍戰艦都被南軍的炮火擊中,但是只有一艘被擊沉。其余船只都順利抵達了目的地。

On the last day of April, the Union troop boats began carrying soldiers to the east side of the river. About twenty-three thousand men crossed. Right away, they faced a force of eight thousand Confederate soldiers. They drove the Confederates back.

4月30號那天,北軍的運兵船將大約兩萬三千名士兵從河西岸運到東岸。他們上岸后立即遭遇了一支八千人的南軍部隊,并將其擊退。

VOICE ONE:

Grant then ordered the rest of his army to cross to the east side of the river. Some of his officers protested. They said it would be impossible to get supplies to a large army east of the river.

格蘭特隨即下令剩下的人馬全部過河,遭到手下一些指揮官的反對。他們覺得供給肯定跟不上。

Grant was not worried about supplies. He said the men should bring only coffee, hard bread, and salt. Anything else could be taken from the farmers of Mississippi. Their homes, he said, were full of food.

然而,格蘭特并不擔心。他下令,所有人只需攜帶咖啡、硬面包和鹽。其余物資可以從密西西比農民那里拿,他們家里有充足的食物。

VOICE TWO:

Grant decided not to throw his men against the strong defenses around Vicksburg immediately. Instead, he marched them east toward Jackson, the state capital.

格蘭特決定,不讓部下立即對維克斯堡強大的防線發動進攻,而是讓他們向東面的密西西比首府杰克遜進發。

Jackson was the supply base for the Confederate army defending Vicksburg. Grant wanted to cut the supply lines between the two cities. He also wanted to prevent the soldiers in Jackson from joining the soldiers in Vicksburg.

杰克遜是維克斯堡防守部隊的供給基地。格蘭特將軍希望切斷兩座城市之間的供給線,同時防止南軍士兵從杰克遜趕往維克斯堡增援。

Grant captured Jackson easily. He left some troops to destroy enemy supplies. He took the remaining troops and turned back toward Vicksburg.

格蘭特輕而易舉地占領了杰克遜,命令一部分人留下來銷毀敵人的供給,其余人趕往維克斯堡。

VOICE ONE:

Siege of Vicksburg
Siege of Vicksburg

Grant attacked Vicksburg several times. Each time, his troops were thrown back. The city's defenses were too strong. Grant then decided to surround the city and wait until its food was gone. That, he thought, would make the Confederates surrender.

格蘭特對維克斯堡發起多次進攻,但是都被擋了回來,維克斯堡的防守滴水不漏。格蘭特只好決定封鎖維克斯堡,等待南軍彈盡糧絕,自己投降。

Grant closed in with men and artillery. As one soldier wrote: "The circle of Union forces around the city was so tight that a cat could not have crept out without being discovered."

格蘭特的炮火和兵力將維克斯堡圍得水泄不通。當時有戰士寫道:“北軍把整個城市圍得嚴嚴實實,就連一只貓也跑不出去?!?/p>

Nothing could get out. Nothing could get in.

Weeks passed. The Union army shelled the city. The Confederate army answered from time to time. Food supplies dropped. There was little to eat except corn bread and the meat of mules. Some people caught rats and ate them.

就這樣,幾個星期過去了。北軍部隊炮轟維克斯堡,南軍時不時地反擊一下。南軍的糧食越來越緊張,除了玉米面包和騾子肉,已經沒有什么好吃的了。一些人開始抓耗子充饑。

VOICE TWO:

Union positions near Vicksburg
Union positions near Vicksburg

Finally, the Confederate commander, General John Pemberton, decided the situation was hopeless. He sent word to Grant that he was ready to discuss surrender.

南軍將領彭伯頓最后決定,沒希望了。他傳話給格蘭特,提出談判。

The two commanders met under a white flag of truce. Grant demanded unconditional surrender. Pemberton rejected the demand.

兩位指揮官在停戰白旗下見面。格蘭特要求南軍無條件投降,遭到彭伯頓拒絕。

Pemberton's men were to be prisoners. That was a fact. But Pemberton wanted them released immediately on parole. He told Grant that his men would promise to stay out of the war if permitted to return to their homes. If not, he said, they would continue to fight.

彭伯頓的手下要成為戰俘,這是毫無疑問的,但是彭伯頓希望他們能立即得到假釋。彭伯頓告訴格蘭特說,如果讓他們回家,這些南軍士兵保證不再參戰。否則的話,他們就會繼續打下去。

VOICE ONE:

Grant agreed to let the Confederate soldiers go home. He and Pemberton signed the surrender agreement on July fourth. The siege of Vicksburg had lasted forty-seven days.

格蘭特同意讓俘虜的南軍士兵回家。7月4號,格蘭特和彭伯頓簽署投降議定書。維克斯堡圍困戰整整持續了47天。

Never had a Union army won such a victory. Grant had taken thirty thousand Confederate soldiers out of the war. He had captured sixty thousand guns and one hundred seventy cannons.

這是北軍取得的最大一場勝利。格蘭特不僅讓三萬名南軍士兵退出戰爭,而且還繳獲了六萬條槍和170門大炮。

These were serious losses for the Confederacy. It already was low on manpower and weapons. But an even greater loss was the control of the Mississippi River. With Vicksburg in Union hands, the North could control the whole length of the river. And the confederacy was split badly.

這讓本來就缺少兵源和武器的南軍遭受重創。南軍更大的損失是喪失了對密西西比河的控制權。占領維克斯堡后,北方就牢牢控制了整條密西西比河,并將南方邦聯攔腰切斷。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #111 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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