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足球体育比分网站:#107: Lee and His Army Cross Into the North

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Two years of a bitter, bloody civil war started to show their effects on both the Confederate states of the South and the Union states of the North. Both sides began to feel the pressure of the costly struggle. The South, however, felt the pressure more severely, because it was weaker in troop strength and industrial strength.

兩年激烈的血腥沖突,給美國南北交戰雙方都造成了創傷,內戰的慘重代價讓他們感到沉重的壓力,尤其是兵力和工業都相對薄弱的南方。

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles discuss the early summer of eighteen sixty-three in the American Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

General Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee

In eighteen-sixty-three, the Confederate states were becoming short of supplies. Food and guns were difficult to find to keep the Confederate armies in the field.

1863年,南方邦聯開始出現物資短缺,食物和槍支都跟不上部隊的需要。

Men were also needed. More and more men. There seemed to be no end to the demand for men to fill the places left empty by dead and wounded soldiers.

與此同時,戰場上的人員傷亡,也使補充兵源成為燃眉之急。

Many in the South were heavy of heart. And the hope among them slowly started to sink. The war was tiring. Its suffering was more than they could bear. And the situation in the West made matters worse.

南方很多人心情沉重,逐漸開始失去希望。戰爭讓人疲憊不堪,帶來的傷痛讓大家感到難以承受。與此同時,西部的局勢更是雪上加霜。

Union Armies were on the move in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee. Their successes were becoming a serious threat. They might soon win control of the whole Mississippi river. This would split the states of the Confederacy and might end its very existence.

北方聯邦部隊已經在密西西比和田納西地區展開行動,構成嚴重威脅。整個密西西比河流域眼看就可能被北方軍全盤控制,從而將南方邦聯一分為二,甚至可能讓邦聯就此終結。

Something was needed to raise up the spirits of the South to break the pressure of Union armies.

南方急需振作士氣,突破北軍的壓力。

VOICE TWO:

General Robert E. Lee believed he had the answer: an invasion of the north. This, he felt, would throw fear into the people of the north and weaken the Union war effort.

羅伯特·李將軍相信,進攻北方將是一劑強心針。他覺得,這會給北方人帶去恐懼,削弱他們的斗志。

Lee had organized an army of seventy-five-thousand men at Fredericksburg, Virginia, halfway between Washington and Richmond. Lee began moving his men June third. They marched northwest into the Shenandoah Valley. The valley led north to the Potomac River. Across the river was the narrow neck of western Maryland, then Pennsylvania.

羅伯特·李將軍在位于華盛頓和里士滿中間的弗雷德里克斯堡集合了一支七萬五千人的隊伍,6月3號下令行動,目標是西北面的雪蘭多山谷。雪蘭多山谷往北是波托馬克河,過河是馬里蘭州西部狹長地帶,然后進入賓夕法尼亞。

Pennsylvania was the target. Its rich farmland produced plenty of food -- enough to feed Lee's hungry army for the summer.

賓夕法尼亞是羅伯特·李的目標,那里土地肥沃,出產的糧食足夠饑腸轆轆的南軍度過夏天。

VOICE ONE:

Standing in the way of Lee's army was a small Union force at Winchester, in northern Virginia. There were only seven-thousand Union soldiers. And they had no idea that the Confederate army was nearby. The Confederates easily defeated them. More than half of the Union troops were captured. The others fled.

羅伯特·李在維吉尼亞北部的溫切斯特遭遇了一股只有七千人的北軍部隊。北軍沒想到敵人近在咫尺,南軍因此輕而易舉地打了勝仗,北軍一半以上人被俘,其他人逃得無影無蹤。

Now there was nothing to stop Lee from marching into Pennsylvania. The huge Army of the Potomac was behind him, near Washington. The Union commander, General Hooker, had to keep his army between Lee and Washington to prevent the Confederates from seizing the national capital.

南軍接下來沒有遇到任何阻礙。北軍強大的波托馬克軍團留守在華盛頓附近,北軍指揮官胡克將軍這樣做,是為了防止南軍突襲。

VOICE TWO:

A painting of a Confederate attack near the town of Greencastle in the northern state of Pennsylvania
A painting of a Confederate attack near the town of Greencastle in the northern state of Pennsylvania

Lee's army crossed western Maryland and entered Pennsylvania. His soldiers found the Pennsylvania countryside very different from Virginia's. Virginia had been a battleground for two years, and the land showed it. Many of its farms had been destroyed. Its stores were empty.

羅伯特·李將軍率部穿過馬里蘭,進入賓夕法尼亞。南軍士兵發現,賓夕法尼亞鄉村跟維吉尼亞迥然不同。維吉尼亞經歷了兩年戰亂,傷痕累累,農場受到嚴重破壞,商店里空空蕩蕩。

Pennsylvania had not been touched by the war. Its big farms were rich. Its towns and villages were full of food and goods of all kinds.

與此相反,賓夕法尼亞沒有遭到戰火的波及,那里的大農場都很富有,城鎮和村莊有各種豐富的物資和商品。

The hungry, poorly-clothed soldiers could not believe their eyes. This was the land of the enemy, they cried, and they could take whatever they wished.

饑腸轆轆、衣衫襤褸的南軍士兵簡直不敢相信自己的眼睛。他們大喊,這是敵軍的土地,我們想拿什么就可以拿什么。

But General Lee said "No." He said supplies could be taken only by Confederate supply officers. And he said they must pay -- in Confederate money -- for everything they took.

但是羅伯特·李將軍下令,絕對禁止隨意劫掠,只有負責供給的南軍指揮官可以購買物資,而且必須給錢。

VOICE ONE:

Lee did not want to anger these people in Pennsylvania. Many of them did not support the Union war effort. Some of the rich farmers said openly that they did not care who won the war. They said they only wanted to be left alone.

李將軍不想激怒賓夕法尼亞人,因為他們當中的很多人并不支持北方聯邦,一些有錢的農場主還公開表示,他們不關心誰輸誰贏,只是希望交戰雙方都不要去打擾他們。

Lee was sure that many in the north felt the same way. There had been signs that people were growing tired of the war.

羅伯特·李將軍相信,很多北方人其實并不關心戰爭,不少跡象顯示,人們已經厭倦了戰爭。

Coal miners in eastern Pennsylvania had shown their feelings toward the war a few months earlier.

賓夕法尼亞西部的礦工幾個月前就用行動表示了他們對戰爭的態度。

They rose up against a new law drafting men into the Union army. The miners did not want to fight. They refused to join the army. They rioted and attacked officials who tried to take them. Soldiers were sent to the mining areas to put down the riots.

他們不想打仗,拒絕參軍,面對一項新的征兵法令,他們奮起反抗,跟強行征兵的官員發生沖突,政府不得不派部隊前去鎮暴。

VOICE TWO:

A cartoon in the magazine Harper's Weekly showing anti-war Copperheads as snakes threatening the Union
A cartoon in the magazine Harper's Weekly showing anti-war Copperheads as snakes threatening the Union

Farmers in nearby Ohio also rebelled against the draft law. They refused to be drafted. Instead, they took guns and battled soldiers who came to arrest them.

附近俄亥俄地區的農民也對征兵法案采取了類似的反抗行動,他們拿起槍支,跟前來抓他們的士兵發生槍戰。

Feelings against the war were growing stronger, not only in Pennsylvania and Ohio, but also in several other farm states of the north. These areas saw a growing support for a peace party -- a political party opposed to the war.

北方的反戰情緒日益高漲,不只是在賓夕法尼亞和俄亥俄,北方其它幾個農業州也是一樣。與此同時,一個主張和平、反對戰爭的政黨在這些地區也開始得到越來越多的人的支持。

Leaders of this movement were Democrats called "Copperheads." They got this name because they wore on their coats a copper penny with the head of an Indian.

這個反戰政黨的領袖們是民主黨人,因為外衣上佩戴著一分錢的銅制硬幣,上面是印第安人頭像,被稱為“銅頭”。

VOICE ONE:

The chief Copperhead was a former Ohio congressman. His name was Clement Vallandigham.

他們領頭的是前俄亥俄州的國會眾議員,名叫克萊門特·伐蘭狄甘。

As a member of Congress, Vallandigham criticized the war and the Republicans. He told them:

伐蘭狄甘還在擔任國會議員的時候就對共和黨人和這場戰爭提出過批判。

"The war for the Union is, in your hands, a most bloody and costly failure. War for the Union was abandoned. And war for the Negro was openly begun with stronger effort than before. With what success." Vallandigham asked. "Let the dead at Fredericksburg and Vicksburg answer."

他說,“為聯邦進行的這場戰爭在你們手里,成了最為血腥、代價最慘重的失敗。為聯邦進行的戰斗已經被拋棄,為黑奴而進行的戰爭越來越公開。結果呢?讓弗雷德里克斯堡和維克斯堡戰死的將士回答吧。”

Vallandigham said he wanted peace, and he wanted it immediately. He offered a simple program: stop the fighting. Make a ceasefire. And let some friendly foreign nation negotiate peace between North and South.

伐蘭狄甘說,他要求和平,而且馬上就要。他提出簡單的解決辦法:停止戰斗。達成?;?。由友好的第三國出面,為南北雙方調解和平。

VOICE TWO:

Clement Vallandigham
Clement Vallandigham

After he lost his seat in Congress, Vallandigham opened a campaign to become governor of Ohio. He traveled all across the state speaking out against the war. He said Republicans did not want peace. He said they wanted to fight until every black man was free.

伐蘭狄甘落選國會議員后,決定參選俄亥俄州長。他在俄亥俄各地發表巡回反戰演講。伐蘭狄甘說,共和黨人不是要和平。他們要一直打下去,直到所有黑人都得到自由。

The Union military commander for Ohio was General Ambrose Burnside, a former commander of the Army of the Potomac. After losing the battle of Fredericksburg, Lincoln removed Burnside as army commander and sent him to Ohio.

俄亥俄的聯邦部隊指揮官是伯恩賽德。伯恩賽德以前曾擔任波托馬克軍團總指揮,后來因為在弗雷德里克斯堡戰敗,被林肯解除職務,派到俄亥俄。

Burnside was worried. Too many people in Ohio opposed the war. He believed that much of what was being said and done in Ohio was close to the crime of treason.

俄亥俄州反戰的人數太多,讓伯恩賽德十分擔心。他覺得,俄亥俄州這些人的言行,已經離叛國不遠了。

VOICE ONE:

Burnside announced several new measures to quiet the opponents of the war.

伯恩賽德因此宣布了幾項新措施,希望借此平息反戰呼聲。

One of these orders limited the right of citizens to criticize government military policy. Another declared that statements of support for the enemy would be punished as treason.

其中一項措施限制民眾批評政府軍事政策的權利。另外一項措施規定,凡是發表支持敵方言論的人,一律按叛國處置。

Vallandigham refused to recognize Burnside's right to give such orders to civilians. On May first, he made a campaign speech to a big crowd at Mount Vernon, Ohio. He denounced Burnside's orders and spoke of the President as "King Lincoln."

伐蘭狄甘不承認伯恩賽德有權發表上述限制人民權利的命令。伐蘭狄甘5月1號在俄亥俄芒特弗農舉行的一次大規模集會上發表競選演說,對伯恩賽德的命令提出批評,還稱林肯是“林肯國王”。

Vallandigham claimed that Lincoln was using the war to become a dictator. He said Lincoln did not want peace, that the president had rejected peace offers from the South. Once again, he said the war was not a struggle for the Union, but a fight to free the slaves of the south. And he said men of Ohio who let themselves be drafted into the Union army were no better than slaves themselves.

伐蘭狄甘說,林肯是在利用這場戰爭實現獨裁。他說,林肯要的不是和平,林肯拒絕接受南方提出的和平提案。伐蘭狄甘再次重申,這場戰爭不是為聯邦統一,而是為解放南方黑奴。他說,應征加入聯邦部隊的人比奴隸好不到哪去。

VOICE TWO:

General Ambrose Burnside
General Ambrose Burnside

Burnside had sent several army officers to listen to the speech. When they reported what Vallandigham said, Burnside ordered his arrest. Without question, the man had violated the General's orders. Late the next night, soldiers went to Vallandigham's home in Dayton. They knocked on the door and said they had come to arrest him.

聽眾里就有伯恩賽德派來的軍官。他們把伐蘭狄甘的話報告給伯恩賽德后,伯恩賽德下令逮捕伐蘭狄甘。

Vallandigham called for help and refused to let the soldiers enter. They broke down the door, seized him and took him to a military prison in Cincinnati.

伐蘭狄甘拒絕開門,但是士兵們最后還是將門撞開,把伐蘭狄甘抓走,送往辛辛那提的一個軍事監獄。

A few days later, Vallandigham went on trial before a military court in Cincinnati. That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

伐蘭狄甘幾天后在那里接受了軍事法庭的裁判。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at 球盘体育比分 www.341124.live. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #107 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

網友的學習評論(1條):
作者:Alumni
Clement Vallandigham was arrested because of his open speech against president and his war policy. he was prisoned in military prison in Cincinnati-- a war machinery ,and it is needed at war time.
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